Bard College Catalogue

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Bard College Catalogue 2013-14

Bard College Catalogue 2013-14

Art History


Julia Rosenbaum (director), Susan Aberth, Katherine M. Boivin, Teju Cole, Laurie Dahlberg, Diana H. DePardo-Minsky, Patricia Karetzky, Alex Kitnick, Susan Merriam, Irene Sunwoo, Tom Wolf


The Art History Program offers the opportunity to explore visual art and culture through courses across a broad range of periods and societies, and through close student-teacher contact. The program emphasizes learning how to look at and write about works of art, particularly in introductory courses. Bard’s proximity to New York City allows for visits to museums and galleries; courses are frequently designed in conjunction with current exhibitions. In addition, the art and architecture of the Hudson Valley provide a fruitful resource for original research. The program maintains close contact with local institutions so that students can study original documents and work as volunteer interns during the summer or January intersession.


Students intending to major in art history should work with their adviser to develop individual study plans that reflect their interests and meet the program’s distribution ­requirements, which give ­students the chance to encounter a wide range of artistic practices across cultures and time. ­Students need a total of four art history courses to moderate, including either Perspectives in World Art I or II (Art History 101, 102). ­Mod­erated students are required to take at least one program course per semester thereafter.

Course requirements for graduation include (in addition to Art History 101 or 102): one course in studio arts, film, or photography; Art Criticism and Methodology (Art History 385), typically taken in the junior year; one non–Western civilization art history course; one course each covering the ancient to 1400 c.e. period, the 1400 to 1800 c.e. period, and the period from 1800 to the present; and at least two 300-level art history seminars (in addition to Art History 385). Note that one course may satisfy both the seminar and period requirements, but no course may satisfy more than two requirements. Before undertaking the Senior Project—a major thesis that examines an original art historical issue—the student is encouraged to demonstrate reading knowledge of a language other than English. Each May, seniors give a short presentation of their topics in an informal colloquium.

Recent Senior Projects in Art History

  • “The Age of Tears: Rogier van der Weyden’s Descent from the Cross and Its Lachrymose Contexts”
  • Mártires y Comandantes: Tracing Historical Memory in the Murals of El Salvador”
  • “New Wilderness,” an examination of how postindustrial landscape designers are redefining natural beauty
  • “Strong in Our Weakness: Yael Bartana’s Strategies for Living with Ghosts”

Perspectives in World Art I, II
Art History 101, 102
cross-listed: africana studies
This two-semester course examines painting, sculpture, architecture, and other cultural artifacts from the Paleolithic period through the present. Works from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas are studied chronologically, in order to provide a more integrated historical context for their production.

History of Photography
Art History 113 / Photography 113
cross-listed: sts
This survey of photography, from its emergence in the 1830s to its recent transformation in the digital era, considers the multifaceted nature of the medium throughout its history.

History of Design and the Decorative Arts
Art History 114
A survey of the decorative arts from the rococo period to postmodernism. Students explore the evolution of historical styles as they appear in furniture, interiors, fashion, ceramics, metalwork, and graphic and industrial design. Objects are evaluated in their historical contexts, and formal, technical, and aesthetic questions are also considered.

The Classical Tradition in Western Architecture
Art History 115
cross-listed: classical studies, eus
This lecture-based course traces classicism in public architecture from its beginnings in ancient Greece to its presence in contemporary America, in order to understand its evolving political iconography, both democratic and ­dictatorial. The central section of the course focuses on the Italian Renaissance’s revival and reinvention of the classical vocabulary through the birth of archaeology, the writing of architectural treatises, and the adaptation of classical types to Christian functions.

Medieval Art and Architecture: From the Romanesque to Gothic
Art History 121
cross-listed: medieval studies
An examination of the art and architecture of the late medieval world, with a focus on sites in France, England, and Italy. Particular attention is paid to the intellectual, social, and cultural underpinnings of the period from the late 12th century to the early 14th century, revealing how factors such as spiritual beliefs, political aspirations, and social tensions both inspired and determined the evolution of cathedral design.

Survey of African Art
Art History 122
cross-listed: africana studies, lais
This introductory course surveys the vast array of art forms created on the African continent from the prehistoric era to the present, as well as arts of the diaspora in Brazil, the Americas, Haiti, and elsewhere. In addition to sculpture, masks, architecture, and metalwork, students examine beadwork, textiles, jewelry, house painting, pottery, and other decorative arts.

Survey of 20th-Century Art
Art History 123
A survey of the major movements of modern art, beginning with postimpressionism in the late 19th century and moving through fauvism, expressionism, cubism, futurism, constructivism, dadaism, surrealism, abstract expressionism, pop art, and minimalism. Painting and sculpture are emphasized.

Japanese Arts of the Edo Period
Art History 124
cross-listed: asian studies
Students examine various painting styles that characterize the period 1615–1868, when Japan and its capital at Edo (now Tokyo) underwent dramatic changes. Contemporary developments in architecture, textiles, ceramics, and literature are also studied in order to understand the art in its cultural and historical context.

Modern Architecture: 1850 to 1950
Art History 125
A survey of modern architecture from its emergence in Western Europe during the 19th century through the end of World War II. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which architects responded to formal and aesthetic developments in other arts as well as to broader tech­nological, economic, and sociopolitical transformations.

Architecture since 1945
Art History 126
A survey of the major transformations in architectural practice and debate since the end of World War II, with a focus on challenges aimed at the modernist discourses of the early 20th century. These challenges begin with New Brutalism and encompass regionalism, neo-rationalism, corporate modernism, and various permutations of these models.

Art of the Ancient Near East
Art History 128
A survey of the art and culture of an area in the Near East known as Mesopotamia, “the land between the rivers.” In this region, corresponding to present-day Iraq, Syria, and Iran, the first urban societies arose. The class examines the art and architecture of these ancient societies in their social, political, and cultural contexts, with an emphasis on the use of art in the expression of authority and legitimacy, religious and ritual ideologies, and artistic interconnections such as those between Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, Turkey, and the Levant.

Introduction to Visual Culture
Art History 130
An introduction to the discipline of art history and to visual artifacts more broadly defined. Participants learn ways to look at, think about, and describe art through assignments based on observation of works at museums and galleries. The course is designed for those with an interest, but no formal course work, in art history.

Medieval Manuscript Painting
Art History 135
A survey of Western and Byzantine painting through manuscript illumination, from the late classical tradition of the Vatican Virgil to the courtly elegance of the Très Riches Heures of the Duke of Berry. The course concludes with an examination of the early printed books of the 15th century, block books such as the Biblia Pauperum, and the spread of movable type.

Survey of Islamic Art
Art History 140
cross-listed: africana studies
A survey of Islamic art in Iran, Syria, Egypt, Turkey, North Africa, Spain, China, India, Indonesia, and other regions, from the death of Muhammad in 632 c.e. until the present. Architectural monuments (their structural features and decoration) are studied, as are the decorative arts—pottery, metalwork, textile and carpet weaving, glass, jewelry, calligraphy, book illumination, and painting.

Survey of Latin American Art
Art History 160
cross-listed: lais
A broad overview of art and cultural production in Latin America. A survey of major pre-Columbian monuments is followed by an examination of the contact between Europe and the Americas during the colonial period, 19th-century Eurocentrism, and the reaffirmation of national identity in the modern era.

Arts of Buddhism
Art History 194
cross-listed: asian studies, religion
Buddhism began in India around the sixth century b.c.e. with the meditations of the historic Buddha. Within 500 years the philosophy, responding to external forces, evolved into a religion incorporating new ideologies of eschatology of the Buddha of the Future and of paradisiacal cults. This course analyzes the development of Buddhist art from its earliest depictions as well as its transmission through Southeast and Central Asia to China and Japan.

Greek Art and Architecture
Art History 201
cross-listed: classical studies
The development of Greek sculpture, vase painting, and architecture is traced from the geometric period through the Hellenistic age. Topics include the development of the freestanding, life-sized nude from Egyptian sources; the depiction of myths and daily life in painting; and the political alliances and institutions that shaped Greek architecture.

Art and Nation Building
Art History 209
cross-listed: american studies
This course explores the contribution of the ­visual arts to the conceptualization of an American national identity. Topics include the role of visual culture in constructing meanings of race, class, and gender; the importance of various genres of painting to national politics and culture; the emergence of American artistic institutions; and the relationship of American art making to European ­traditions.

Roman Art and Architecture
Art History 210
cross-listed: classical studies
This course traces the development of Roman art and architecture from the founding of the city in 753 b.c.e. to the transfer of the capital to the east by Constantine in 330 c.e. Lectures explore how Rome incorporated and synthesized the styles and achievements of conquered peoples (Etruscans, Greeks, Egyptians) to produce something entirely new that not only communicated the nature of the empire but also established a common artistic vocabulary throughout the Mediterranean basin.

Sightseeing: Vision and the Image in the Early Modern Period
Art History 211
cross-listed: sts
This course examines the complex relationship between theories of vision and the production and reception of images in European art and culture of the early modern period (1500–1750). Areas of study include optical devices such as the camera obscura, telescope, and “peep box”; perspective systems and their distortion; visions of the divine; the ways in which vision and imagery were associated with desire; evidentiary theory; and the representation of sight.

19th-Century Photography and Fine Art
Art History 212
cross-listed: sts
The semester begins with the debate over realism in art that forms the backstory for the complicated reception of photography and then works forward to the pictorialist movement at the end of the 19th century. Along the way, students address such topics as “passing” (how to make photographs that look like art); photography and art pedagogy; photography’s role in the “liberation” of painting; and the 20th-century ­repudiation of 19th-century photography’s art aspirations.

Art of the Northern Renaissance
Art History 219
A survey of painting in Flanders, the Netherlands, and Germany during the 15th and 16th centuries. The course first examines the innovations of Flemish and Dutch artists working abroad, then shifts to the emergence, in the north, of new forms of painting in the work of Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Bruegel, Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein, Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden.

Early Medieval Art and Architecture
Art History 220
cross-listed: classical studies, medieval studies
An examination of art from the age of Constantine to 1000 c.e., including catacomb painting, the early Christian basilica and martyrium, the domed churches of the East, and Byzantine mosaics and icons. The class explores the contrasting aesthetic of the migrations, the “animal style” in art, the Sutton Hoo and Viking ship burials, the golden age of Irish art, the Carolingian “renaissance,” treasures of the Ottonian empire, and the art of the millennium.

Art of the British Isles: Prehistory to 1300
Art History 224
cross-listed: medieval studies
This course investigates the early art and architectural traditions of the British Isles, from ­prehistory through the Middle Ages, with the goal of synthesizing a transhistorical understanding of changes in artistic values. The class considers Stonehenge and the pagan ritual landscape before moving on to Roman Britain and the effects of Celtic monasticism and the Christianization of Britain. The art and architectural developments under the Normans and the rise of Gothic style are also discussed.

Roman Urbanism from Romulus (753 b.c.e.) to Rutelli (2000 c.e.)
Art History 227
cross-listed: classical studies, italian studies
Politicians and popes, from the Emperor Augustus to the current Italian government, have crafted Rome into a capital that suits their ideological aims. This course focuses on the commissioning of large-scale representational architecture, the creation of public space, the orchestration of streets, and the continuing dialogue between past and present in the city of Rome.

Film among the Arts
Art History 230 / Film 230
See Film 230 for a full course description.

The High Renaissance
Art History 231
cross-listed: italian studies
A study of major painters and sculptors of the High Renaissance in Florence and Rome, focusing on the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. The class considers the origin and development of a monumental style in Italian art and concludes with an examination of the work of selected mannerist artists.

Italian Renaissance Architecture and Urbanism
Art History 232
cross-listed: eus, italian studies
This course follows the development of architecture and urbanism in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries. Proceeding chronologically from Florence to Rome and Venice, the lectures situate the architecture and ideas of Brunelleschi, Alberti, Leonardo, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Palladio (all were architects) within their political and theological context. The class also explores how the demands of the Counter-Reformation modified architectural form and theory.

Art History 233
A thematic examination of the 17th-century Dutch painter. Topics discussed include the Delft School, domestic space, optics, sexuality, belief, and Vermeer’s reception. Enrollment is limited to 14, by permission of the instructor.

Photography and Empire: Travel and Exploration in 19th-Century Photography
Art History 237
cross-listed: photography, victorian studies
This course studies the photography that accompanied the New Imperialism of the 19th century, a period of colonial expansion that neatly coincided with the discovery and development of the new medium of photography. Most of the photography considered was made by European (or Euro-American) photographers of non-European places and peoples, and discussion returns again and again to questions of how these photographers did, or did not, ­“re-produce” the world as a subsumed space of European design or dominion.

Rights and the City: Topics in Human Rights and Urbanism
Art History 240  / Human Rights 240
cross-listed: eus, sts
An exploration of the terrain of urban contexts, looking at cities from architectural, sociological, historical, and political positions. Organized thematically, the course addresses such issues as the consequences of cities’ developments in relation to their peripheries, debates around the public sphere, nomadic architecture and urbanism, informal settlements such as slums and shantytowns, surveillance and control in urban centers, refugees and the places they live, catastrophes and reconstruction, and sovereign areas within cities (the UN, war crimes tribunals). Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Out of Bounds: The Margins of Medieval Art
Art History 243
cross-listed: medieval studies
The border regions of medieval artistic accomplishments were areas of play and perversity. Numerous images—from, for instance, sculptural details, woodcarvings, and manuscripts—appear secular in nature; yet scholars have struggled to explain how and why these were considered appropriate for sacred contexts by medieval people. This course traces myriad reactions to the Gothic margin in order to broach the larger question of what it meant to be a viewer in the later Middle Ages.

Contemporary African Art
Art History 244
cross-listed: africana studies
This course looks at the visual arts of Africa and the African diaspora from the postcolonial period to the present. With a focus on painting, photography, installation, video, and conceptual art, the class challenges received ideas about the artistic practice of African artists. Key figures studied include El Anatsui, Wangechi Mutu, Julie Mehretu, Yinka Shonibare, Nnenna Okore, William Kentridge, and Jelili Atiku.

Photography since 1950
Art History 247
cross-listed: human rights, photography
The course explores the changing social and artistic roles of photography after World War II. Developments considered: the dominance of magazine photography in the 1950s, along with the birth of a more personal photographic culture (Robert Frank’s The Americans); how, in the 1960s, Diane Arbus, Garry Winogrand, and Lee Friedlander helped create a new view of contemporary life from moments gathered in the streets and from private lives; and, beginning in the 1970s, the use of photography to pose questions about image making in a media-saturated culture.

Roma in Situ
Art History 248
cross-listed: classical studies
This course consists of two weeks of walking, looking, and learning in Rome, followed by class meetings to discuss secondary scholarship and present student research. In Rome, the first week focuses on the ancient city, while the second week focuses on postantique (Early Christian, Renaissance, Baroque, and contemporary) art and architecture. Prerequisite: completion of one of the following courses: Art History 210, Art History 227, Classics 103, or Latin 101, 201, or 301.

International Film Noir
Art History 249 / Film 249
See Film 249 for a full course description.

19th-Century American Art
Art History 250
A study of U.S. art, focusing on painting but also looking at sculpture, architecture, and decorative art, from the Colonial period through the end of the 19th century. Artists considered include John Singleton Copley, Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, and the painters of the Hudson River School. Several class trips take advantage of the splendid collections of U.S. art in the Hudson River Valley and New York City.

Africa in the Americas
Art History 253
cross-listed: africana studies, human rights, lais
Explore the diverse art forms created in the Americas that either address the presence of Africans or were made by individuals of African descent. The course also deals with postindependence Latin American art that focuses on the African diaspora, with a particular emphasis on the survival of African religious practices in the Caribbean, Brazil, and elsewhere. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

The Art of the 1980s
Art History 256
While iconic documents of the 1980s (Dallas, Miami Vice, Wall Street, the Brat Pack) dependably reemerge in the realm of popular culture, the serious art practices from this decade are less well known. The class looks at work by seminal painters, sculptors, and collectives—e.g., Schnabel, Sherman, Gonzalez-Torres, Polke, Leirner, Watts, Group Material—through the multivalent lenses of such intellectual movements as postmodernism, appropriation, deconstruction, and liberation theology.

Art in the Age of Revolution
Art History 257
cross-listed: victorian studies
A survey of European painting from the pre-revolutionary period (c. 1770) to realism (c. 1850). Topics include changing definitions of neoclassicism and romanticism; the impact of the French revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 1848; the Napoleonic presence abroad; the shift from history painting to scenes of everyday life; landscape painting as an autonomous art form; and attitudes toward race and sexuality. While the emphasis is on French art, time is also devoted to artists in Spain, Great Britain, and Germany.

Manet to Matisse
Art History 258
cross-listed: french studies, gss
A social history of European painting from 1860 to 1900, beginning with the origins of modernism in the work of Manet. Topics include the rebuilding of Paris under Napoleon III, changing attitudes toward city and country in impressionist and symbolist art, and the prominent place of women in modern life representations.

Sustainable Urbanism
Art History 259
cross-listed: eus, human rights, sts
This course looks at whether it is possible to retrofit existing cities to conform to a workable ethos of sustainability. What sorts of measures might urban designers and planners take to ensure that new cities embody the basic tenets of sustainable growth? Students contemplate these questions historically, theoretically, and in terms of platforms for innovation and action.

German and Austrian Expressionism
Art History 262
The emphasis is on art from Austria and Germany—from Jugendstil through expressionism, dadaism, Neue Sachlichkeit, Nazi and concentration camp art, and the post–World War II era—with brief forays into Scandinavian art. Artists studied include Wassily Kandinsky, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Paul Klee, and Egon Schiele. The course also looks at more recent artists, including Bernd and Hilla Becher, Joseph Beuys, Sigmar Polke, and Gerhard Richter.

Islam from Spain to Russia and China: Art, Philosophy, and Politics in the Medieval World
Art History 264
This course examines the encounter of Islam with civilizations from Spain to Russia and China (800–1750), with particular emphasis on the political and philosophical dimensions of Islamic art in the premodern world, and on categories like the “West,” “Middle East” and “Far East.” Can we define these geographic categories as distinct cultural regions with clear intellectual borders? How does our understanding of these paradigms change when we think in terms of “trans-Mediterranean” and “trans-Caspian” artistic and political exchange?

Dada and Surrealism
Art History 265
A survey of the two major artistic movements in post–World War I Europe. Lectures on earlier modernist movements in Paris, particularly cubism, are followed by a study of the iconoclastic art of dadaists such as Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Hans Arp. The course concludes with the surrealist group, including Joan Miró, André Masson, Max Ernst, and René Magritte.

Religious Imagery in Latin America
Art History 273
cross-listed: africana studies, lais
This course explores the varied visual manifestations of religious expression in Latin America after the Spanish Conquest. In addition to churches, statuary, and paintings, the class examines folk art traditions, African diasporic religions, and contemporary art and practices.

The Dutch “Golden Age”
Art History 277
cross-listed: sts
This course examines the extraordinarily rich visual culture that emerged in 17th-century Holland, the first bourgeois capitalist state. The class studies the art of Rembrandt and Vermeer, among others, as it expressed the daily life, desires, and identity of this new society. Topics addressed include artistic practice (materials and production, patronage, the art market), aesthetics (realism, style), and social concerns (public and private life, city and rural cultures, national identity, colonialism, domesticity, gender, religion, and the new science).

Modern in America
Art History 278
cross-listed: american studies
This course concentrates on early 20th-century artists and art movements in the United States. Topics include modernity and nationalism; the roles and representation of technology in art; exhibitions and cultural propaganda; artistic identity and gender roles; and public art, murals, and social activism.

The Golden Age and the Landslide: Art and Theory since 1945
Art History 283
Historian Eric Hobsbawm, in his seminal history of the 20th century, The Age of Extremes, coined the phrase “The Short Twentieth Century.” The class looks at the period spanning two of his subcategories—the Golden Age (1950–75) and the Landslide (1975–91)—through the lens of art and visual culture. Movements studied include abstract expressionism, pop, minimalism, and conceptual art, with a particular focus on the intersection of art, theory, and contextual histories.

El Greco to Goya: Spanish Art and Architecture
Art History 286
cross-listed: lais
A survey of the complex visual culture of early modern Spain, with particular attention given to El Greco, Goya, Murillo, Velázquez, and Zurbarán. The class examines the formation of a distinct Spanish style within the context of European art and considers how Spanish artistic identity was a kind of hybrid, complicated both by Spain’s importation of foreign artists (Rubens, Titian) and by its relationship to the art and architecture of the colonies.

Rights and the Image
Art History 289
cross-listed: human rights
An examination of the relationship between visual culture and human rights, using case studies that range in time from the early modern period (marking the body to register criminality, for example) to the present day (images from Abu Ghraib). Subjects addressed include evidence, disaster photography, advocacy images, censorship, and visibility and invisibility.

Arts in China
Art History 290
cross-listed: asian studies
This course begins with Neolithic painted pottery, the earliest expression of the Chinese aesthetic. Next, the early culture of the Bronze Age is reviewed, followed by the unification of China under the first emperor, the owner of 60,000 life-size clay figu­rines. In the fifth century, Buddhist art achieved expression in colossal sculptures carved from living rock and in paintings of paradise. Confucian and Taoist philosophy, literature, and popular culture are examined through the paintings of the later dynasties.

From Ming to Post-Mao: Modern Chinese Art
Art History 292
cross-listed: asian studies
This course begins with the emergence of a modernist aesthetic in the 19th century (at the end of China’s last dynasty) and covers the formation of a nationalist modern movement, the political art that served the government under the Communist regime, and the impact of the opening of China to the West. A primary focus is the various ways in which artists respond to the challenges of contemporary life and culture.

East Meets West
Art History 293
cross-listed: asian studies
A consideration, through art, of the impacts Eastern and Western cultures have had on one another. Broad topics for discussion include the art of Buddhism and the Silk Road; medieval European borrowings from the East; travelers East and West; Arabs as transmitters of Asian technologies; concepts of heaven and hell; Western missionaries and the introduction of Western culture in India, China, and Japan; chinoiserie in European architecture, gardening and décor; and Japonisme—the influence of the Asian aesthetic on modern art movements.

The Arts of India
Art History 295
cross-listed: asian studies
Beginning with the most ancient urban civilization, dating to the prehistoric period, the flowering and development of Indian philosophical and religious thought is traced through its expression in the arts, including the culture’s unique exploitation of the sensuous as a metaphor for divinity. Among other topics studied are the evolution of an iconic tradition and the development of religious architectural forms, narrative painting, and sculpture.

The History of the Museum
Art History 298
This course traces the transformation of early collecting and display practices into the first modern “survey” museum and considers the emergence of alternatives to this model. Topics include problems in contemporary museum practice (such as contested provenance); the museum as memory and memorial; collections as sites for producing knowledge; artists’ intervention in the museum; the virtual collection; and the logic and politics of display.

Text and Image: Writing about Art
Art History 305
Art writing is among the most challenging writing one can do, as it demands that we objectify a subjective response to the inherently ambiguous artwork. How, then, can we begin to write insightfully about art in a way that can be tested, defended, and understood? This seminar, conceived as a writer’s practicum and adjunct to Art History 385, Art Criticism and Methodology, is intended for Upper College students who wish to develop their interpretive skills and hone the craft of writing about visual art.

Beautiful by Design: The Decorative Arts and Material Culture in Late 19th- / Early 20th-Century America
Art History 315
cross-listed: american studies
This seminar focuses on the work of Gilded Age painters, sculptures, designers, and landscapists through the lens of one of the great Gilded Age sites in the Hudson Valley—Vanderbilt Mansion. The class visits the mansion regularly, and each student works closely with specific objects in the collections.

The Animal Style in Art
Art History 321
cross-listed: ics, medieval studies
This seminar explores the character and diffusion of the “animal style”—a nonfigural, essentially abstract, and highly decorative art that displays a genius for pattern and fantasy. It reviews the art of the Scythians and Sarmatians, who roamed the steppes of Central Eurasia; manifestations of this style in the La Tène civilization and among Germanic tribes; the treasures of Celtic Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England (among them, the Sutton Hoo ship burial); and the art and influence of Viking culture in areas as widespread as Ireland and Russia.

Crossroads of Civilization: The Art of Medieval Spain
Art History 323
cross-listed: laid, medieval studies
The major focus of this course is on Visi­gothic art; Al-Andalus, the Islamic art of Spain; Asturian and Mozarabic art; and Romanesque art of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. Students investigate the patterns of exchange, appropriation, assimilation, and tension among Islamic, Judaic, and Christian traditions, and attempt to assess the effects of this cross-fertilization of cultures on the visual arts.

Villa Culture: Origins and Adaptations
Art History 336
The villa or country house, as opposed to a working farm, embodies a city dweller’s idyllic interpretation of country life. Built more to embody an idea than fulfill a function, it encourages innovation in expressing the patron’s or architect’s views on the relationship between man and nature. The architecture of the Hudson Valley played a critical role in the development of the country house and landscape garden in the United States. This seminar studies local developments within the larger context of the history of villa architecture.

Seminar in Contemporary Art
Art History 340
A consideration of the history of recent art, beginning with a survey of the minimalism of the 1960s and then focusing on artistic developments in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. The class meets in New York City every fourth week to view current exhibitions.

Preserving Berlin
Art History 341
This course addresses issues of preservation and display using the museums, monuments, and urban fabric of Berlin. In particular, the class looks at Museumsinsel, a cluster of museums built between 1824 and 1930; and at Kulturforum, a group of museums constructed near Potsdamer Platz in the 1950s. The Holocaust Memorial, Reichstag, and other sites of historical significance are also examined.

Popular Arts in Modern India
Art History 343 / Religion 343
See Religion 343 for full course description.

Michelangelo: The Man, the Masterpieces, and the Myth
Art History 345
cross-listed: italian studies
A study of the achievements of Michelangelo in sculpture, painting, architecture, and poetry in the context of the biographies of Vasari (1550, 1568) and Condivi (1553). Discussion also analyzes Michelangelo’s role in shaping his public image and creating the modern idea of the artist as isolated genius.

Asian American Artists Seminar
Art History 348
cross-listed: asian studies
In recent years there has been increasing interest in artists of Asian ancestry who have worked in the United States. The relationship between the artistic traditions of their native lands and their subsequent immersion in American culture provides material for fascinating inquiries concerning biography, style, subject matter, and politics. Artists studied include Isamu Noguchi, Yayoi Kusama, and Mariko Mori, among others.

Women Artists of the Surrealist Movement
Art History 349
This course examines the use of female sexuality in surrealist imagery and then juxtaposes it to the writing and work of Claude Cahun, Leonora Carrington, Leonor Fini, Dora Maar, Lee Miller, Meret Oppenheim, Dorothea Tanning, Toyen, Remedios Varo, and others. Issues explored include female subjectivity, cultural identity, occultism, mythology, dream imagery, artistic collaboration, and the methodologies employed to interpret surrealism in general.

Outsider Art
Art History 353
The term “outsider art” is a problematic umbrella under which are grouped a variety of difficult-to-categorize artistic practices. This course examines the use of terminology such as outsider, naïve, and visionary, as well as groupings such as art brut, folk art, art of the insane, and popular culture. It includes a trip to the American Folk Art Museum in New York City.

Fin de Siècle: Seminar in Symbolism, Art Nouveau, and Arts and Crafts
Art History 360
This seminar studies developments in the fine and decorative arts at the end of the 19th and the early 20th centuries in Europe and the United States. Topics explored include the anti-Realist reaction of artists such as van Gogh, Gauguin, and Beardsley; the development of the Arts and Crafts movement; photography at the turn of the century; and the relationship between the Arts and Crafts movement, Vienna Werkstätte and Art Nouveau.

U.S. Women Artists
Art History 367
cross-listed: gss
This seminar traces the history of women artists in the United States, beginning with the neoclassical sculptors of the 18th century and continuing with Mary Cassatt, women artists of the Arts and Crafts and suffrage movements, and Georgia O’Keeffe and her modernist contemporaries. The course also looks at the legacy of these artists as reflected and transformed by the artists of the 1970s feminist movement.

Mexican Muralism
Art History 375
cross-listed: lais
This course examines the muralism movement’s philosophical origins in the decades following the Mexican Revolution; the murals of Orozco, Rivera, and Siqueiros, the Tres Grandes (“The Three Great Ones”); and the work of lesser known Mexican muralists. Also considered is the muralism movement’s wide-ranging impact on murals executed under the WPA in the United States throughout the 1930s, in Nicaragua during the 1970s, and in urban Chicano communities. Prerequisite: Art History 101-102 or 160 or permission of the instructor.

Contemporary Issues in Architecture and Urban Theory
Art History 378
cross-listed: eus
The class examines how, through new research and methodological approaches, the conceptual parameters of architectural history have been expanded; canonical figures and their works have been recast in distinct terms; and overlooked or understudied architects, practices, and projects have opened up new problematics. Students also look at how new forms of architectural practice and new ideas of spatiality have emerged in response of such challenges. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Art Criticism and Methodology
Art History 385
This seminar, designed primarily for art history majors, helps students develop the ability to think critically about a range of different approaches to the field of art history. Students read and discuss a variety of texts in order to become familiar with the discipline’s development. Methodologies such as connoisseurship, cultural history, Marxism, feminism, and postmodernism are analyzed.

Contemporary Queer Theory
Art History 388
cross-listed: gss
This seminar considers the relationships between queer theory and queer culture (subcultural, artistic, or sexual) and various interactions between queer theory and other modes of critical theory, ranging from economic theories of neoliberalism, political theories of nationalism and militarism, and diasporic and disability studies. The class explores queer theory’s reorientation of various disciplines, its modes of inquiry and proximity to social justice, and asks how queer theory’s objectives and methods might be redefined for continued relevance to gendered and sexual life.