Bard College Catalogue

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Bard College Catalogue, 2018–19

Bard College Catalogue, 2018–19

Art History


Julia Rosenbaum (director), Susan Aberth, Katherine M. Boivin, Laurie Dahlberg, Diana H. DePardo-Minsky, Patricia Karetzky, Alex Kitnick, Susan Merriam, Deepa Ramaswamy, Olga Touloumi, Tom Wolf


The Art History Program offers the opportunity to explore visual art and culture through courses across a broad range of periods and societies, and through close student-teacher interaction. The program emphasizes learning how to look at and write about visual material, particularly in introductory courses. Bard’s proximity to New York City allows for visits to museums and galleries; courses are frequently designed in conjunction with current exhibitions. In addition, the art and architecture of the Hudson Valley provide a fruitful resource for original research. The program maintains close contact with local institutions so that students can study original documents and work as volunteer interns during the summer or January intersession. Advanced students may also work with faculty at the Center for Curatorial Studies on campus and at the Bard Graduate Center in New York City.


 Students intending to major in art history should work with their adviser to develop individual study plans that reflect their interests and meet the program’s distribution requirements, which give them the chance to encounter a wide range of artistic practices across cultures and time. Students need a total of four art history courses to moderate, including either Perspectives in World Art I or II (Art History 101, 102). Moderated students must take at least one program course per semester thereafter.

Course requirements for graduation include (in addition to Art History 101 or 102): one course in studio arts, film, or photography; Theories and Methods of Art History (Art History 385), typically taken in the junior year; a set of period and geographic requirements; and at least two 300-level art history seminars (in addition to Art History 385). One course may satisfy both the seminar and period/geographic requirement. Before undertaking the Senior Project—a major thesis that examines an original art historical issue—the student is encouraged to demonstrate reading knowledge of a language other than English. Each May, seniors give a short presentation of their topics in an informal colloquium.

Recent Senior Projects in Art History

  • “Evolution of Nonobjective Art in the Russian Avant-Garde, 1900–23”
  • “Fabricating Realness: Yinka Shonibare and Dutch Wax Print Textiles”
  • “Invisible Invitations: A Meditation on the Sentimental, Sociopolitical, and Philosophical Significance of Park Benches”
  • “The Significance of Female Attire as Shown in Florentine Portraiture of the Quattrocento to the Cinquecento”


The descriptions below represent a sampling of courses from the past four years.

Perspectives in World Art I, II
Art History 101, 102
This two-semester course examines painting, sculpture, architecture, and other cultural artifacts from the Paleolithic period through the present. Works from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas are studied chronologically, in order to provide a more integrated historical context for their production.

History of Photography
Art History 113 / Photography 113
The discovery of photography was announced in 1839, almost simultaneously by several inventors. Born of experiments in art and science, the medium combines vision and technology. With its uniquely intimate relation to the real, photography has many applications outside the realm of fine art; nevertheless, from its inception it has been a vehicle for artistic aspirations. This survey of photography from its earliest manifestations to the 2000s considers the medium’s applications—as art, science, historical record, and document.

History of the Decorative Arts
Art History 114
A survey of the decorative arts from the rococo period to postmodernism. Students explore the evolution of historical styles as they appear in furniture, interiors, fashion, ceramics, metalwork, and graphic and industrial design. Objects are evaluated in their historical contexts, and formal, technical, and aesthetic questions are also considered.

Romanesque Art and Architecture
Art History 120
This course covers the art and architecture created in Western Europe from around 1000 ce to 1500 ce. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of architecture (religious and secular), sculpture, painting, stained glass, tapestry, and metalwork within a wider cultural context. Topics addressed include the aftermath of the millennium, the medieval monastery, pilgrimage and the cult of relics, the age of the great cathedrals (Chartres, Amiens, Reims, etc.), and late medieval visual culture up to the Reformation.

Survey of African Art
Art History 122
This introductory course surveys the vast array of art forms created on the African continent from the prehistoric era to the present, as well as arts of the diaspora in Brazil, the Americas, Haiti, and elsewhere. In addition to sculpture, masks, architecture, and metalwork, students examine beadwork, textiles, jewelry, house painting, pottery, and other decorative arts.

Survey of 20th-Century Art
Art History 123
An overview of the major movements of modern art, beginning with postimpressionism in the late 19th century and moving through fauvism, expressionism, cubism, futurism, constructivism, Dadaism, surrealism, abstract expressionism, ­pop art, and minimalism.

Modern Architecture: 1850–1950
Art History 125
A history of modern architecture from its emergence in Western Europe during the 18th century to its widespread presence and diversification by the end of World War II. The course pays particular attention to the ways in which architects have responded to, and participated in, formal and aesthetic developments in other arts, as well as the role of architecture in broader technological, economic, and social-political transformations. Figures discussed include Schinkel, Paxton, Sullivan, Wright, Oud, Corbusier, Mies, and Aalto.

Modern Architecture: Going Global, 1930-90
Art History 126
A survey of the global implications of architectural modernism, particularly as articulated in 20th-century practices and theories. The course covers such movements as brutalism, functionalism, corporate architecture, phenomenology, postmodernism, and deconstruction. It also interrogates the social and political function of the built environment, addressing social housing, third-world development, and urbanism.

Art of the Ancient Near East
Art History 128
This course examines the art and culture of Mesopotamia, a region corresponding to present-day Iraq, Syria, and Iran. Here, in the millennia before Christ, from roughly 3500 bce to 330 bce, the first urban societies arose, writing was invented, empires were born, and great power and wealth were amassed. The successive peoples of the region—Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians—produced a rich visual culture, ranging from carved palace reliefs to ivory, gold, and bronze luxury goods. These works are considered within their social, political, and cultural contexts.

Introduction to Visual Culture
Art History 130
An introduction to the discipline of art history and to visual artifacts more broadly defined. Participants learn ways to look at, think about, and describe art through assignments based on observation of works at museums and galleries. The course is designed for those with an interest, but no formal course work, in art history.

The Cultural Practice of Mapping
Art History 132
Astrolabes, sea charts, atlases, and, more recently, global positioning systems (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are all tools for the navigation and mapping of the surface of the earth. This course examines the visual history and cultural production of maps as various discourses on power, nation building, identity formation, and economics. Texts by geographers, sociologists, and urban and art historians.

Survey of Latin American Art
Art History 160
A survey of pre-Columbian monuments is followed by an examination of the contact between Europe and the Americas during the colonial period, 19th-century Euro­centrism, and the reaffirmation of national identity in the modern era.

Arts of Japan
Art History 193
The class first studies the Neolithic period and its cord-impressed pottery (Jomon) circa 2000 bce, when Japanese cultural and ­aesthetic characteristics are already observable. Next, the great wave of Chinese influence is viewed, including its impact on government, religion (Buddhism), architecture, and art. Subsequent periods of indigenous art in esoteric Buddhism, popular Buddhism, Shinto, narrative scroll painting, medieval screen painting, Zen art, and ukiyo-e prints are presented in a broad view of the social, artistic, and historical development of Japan.

Arts of Buddhism
Art History 194
Buddhism began in India around the sixth century b.c.e. with the meditations of the historic Buddha. Self-reliance and discipline were the primary means to achieve release from suffering. Within 500 years the philosophy evolved into a religion incorporating new ideologies of eschatology of the Buddha of the Future and of paradisiacal cults. A new pantheon of deities appeared with powers to aid mankind in its search for immortality. This course analyzes the development of Buddhist art from its earliest depictions.

Greek Art and Architecture
Art History 201
The development of Greek sculpture, vase painting, and architecture is traced from the geometric period through the Hellenistic age. Topics include the development of the freestanding, life-size nude from Egyptian sources; the depiction of myths and daily life in painting; and the political alliances and institutions that shaped Greek architecture.

Art and Nation Building
Art History 209
This course explores the contribution of the ­visual arts to the conceptualization of an American national identity. Topics include the role of visual culture in constructing meanings of race, class, and gender; the importance of various genres of painting to national politics and culture; the emergence of American artistic institutions; and the relationship of American art making to European traditions.

Roman Art and Architecture
Art History 210
This course traces the development of Roman art and architecture from the founding of the city in 753 b.c.e. to the transfer of the capital to the east by Constantine in 330 c.e. Lectures explore how Rome incorporated and synthesized the styles and achievements of conquered peoples (Etruscans, Greeks, Egyptians) to produce something entirely new that not only communicated the nature of the empire but also established a common artistic vocabulary throughout the Mediterranean basin.

Sightseeing: Vision and the Image in the Early Modern Period
Art History 211
This course examines the complex relationship between theories of vision and the production and reception of images in European art and culture of the early modern period (1500–1750). Areas of study include optical devices, such as the camera obscura, telescope, and “peep box”; perspective systems and their distortion; visions of the divine; the ways in which vision and imagery were associated with desire; evidentiary theory; and the representation of sight.

Leonardo da Vinci and Italian Renaissance Iconography
Art History 211
The class looks at how Leonardo’s oeuvre revolutionized Renaissance iconography, positing that his curiosity about natural phenomenon, coupled with his belief in human capacity, helped transform the parameters of female portraiture and religious images. The first half situates Leonardo’s drawings and paintings within contemporary Florentine art; the second half focuses on an in-depth analysis of the Last Supper. Primary texts are Leo Steinberg’s Sexuality of Christ and Leonardo’s Incessant Last Supper.

Islamic Art and Architecture
Art History 217
A survey of the evolution of Islamic art and architecture in different regions of the medieval Islamic world—Spain, North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia—from the 7th to the 15th century. Issues concerning function, patronage, and the exchange of intellectual and artistic ideas are explored through architecture (palace, mosque, madrasa, tomb) and portable arts (ceramics, metalwork, textiles, books).

Art of the Northern Renaissance: Van Eyck to Bruegel
Art History 219
The class explores the visual culture of the Netherlands and Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries. This was a period of important formal changes in art, from the invention of oil painting to the rise of vernacular art. It was also a time of great upheaval in European society, encompassing the discovery of the New World, Renaissance, Reformation, birth of modern science, and beginning of the Counter-Reformation. Works by van Eyck, Dürer, Bosch, and Bruegel are considered.

Wild Visions: Picturing Nature
Art History 223
Early modern artists, scientists, adventurers, and amateurs created a compelling visual record of the natural world, aided in their endeavors by recent technologies (the microscope and telescope) and recording methods (printmaking), while an insatiable audience for images of nature provided a ready market. Nature was celebrated as divine creation and explored as a place of violence and mystery. Although this interest was pan-European, the course focuses on images and objects from present-day Germany, Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

Art through Nature: Landscape, Environment, and Design in America
Art History 225
How did 19th- and 20th-century Americans understand nature and imagine its role? How have visions of landscape shaped perceptions about social order, health, identity, and sustainability? The course is structured around historical case studies and focuses on three conceptions of the land: visual representations in the form of landscape painting; physical shaping through landscape design; and preservation in terms of the development of cultural heritage sites. Visits to local sites and New York City.

Roman Urbanism from Romulus: (753 bce) to Rutelli (2000 ce)
Art History 227
Politicians and popes, from the Emperor Augustus to the current Italian government, have crafted Rome into a capital that suits their ideological aims. This course focuses on the commissioning of large-scale representational architecture, creation of public space, orchestration of streets, and continuing dialogue between past and present in the city of Rome.

16th-Century Italian Art, Architecture, and Urbanism
Art History 236
With an emphasis on Florence, Rome, and Venice, the course situates formal and iconographic innovations in painting, sculpture, architecture, and urbanism within the politics and theology of the cinquecento Renaissance and Counter-Reformation. The class analyzes the contributions of da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Correggio, Parmigianino, Giorgione, Titian, Veronese, and Palladio. In addition to secondary scholarship, readings incorporate primary sources by da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Palladio, and Vasari.

Surrealism: Latin American Literature and Art
Art History 239
André Breton, founder of the surrealist movement, first visited Mexico in 1938 and the Caribbean in 1941. Surrealist journals and artists extolled “primitive” mythologies and were captivated by such “exotic” artists as Frida Kahlo and Wifredo Lam. This course explores surrealism in literature and the arts of Latin America, and the surrealist fascination with non-Western culture.

Art since 1989
Art History 242
An examination of art produced since 1989, primarily in Europe and the United States. The year 1989 saw the fall of the Berlin Wall and the beginning of a major shift in the geopolitical landscape. This course charts a variety of artistic practices, including identity politics, institutional critique, and relational aesthetics, which engaged this new terrain by asking questions about history, temporality, and community. Students look at examples of painting, sculpture, installation, performance, and video art.

Medieval Art of the Mediterranean World
Art History 246
This course explores connections around and across the Mediterranean from the 4th through the 13th century, and considers art and architecture within dynamic contexts of cultural conflict and exchange. It introduces art traditionally categorized as Early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque, and Islamic, but also encourages students to question critically these designations. Looking at art created by Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and “pagan” communities, the class examines the role of the Mediterranean Sea as a boundary and a crossroad in the development of urban centers around its periphery.

Photography since 1950
Art History 247
An exploration of the changing social and ­artistic roles of photography after World War II. Develop­ments considered: the dominance of magazine photography in the 1950s, along with the birth of a more personal photographic culture (Robert Frank’s The Americans); how, in the ­1960s, Diane Arbus, Garry Winogrand, and Lee Friedlander helped create a new view of contemporary life from moments gathered in the streets and from private lives; and, beginning in the 1970s, the use of photography to pose questions about image making in a ­media-saturated culture.

The Altarpiece
Art History 249
Developed in the 14th century as a painted or carved image program placed on an altar table, the altarpiece became a site for artistic innovation and has been central to the narrative of Western art history. Focusing on medieval and Renaissance examples from across Western Europe, the class explores the development, function, iconography, and art historical and liturgical significance of important altarpieces.

Photography’s Other Histories
Art History 251 / Photography 251
Beyond the canon and beyond the standard Euro-American settings, in search of alternatives to conventional narratives. How, for example, has photography been appropriated and adapted by people who have more often been seen as the objects of the Euro-American gaze than wielders of the camera themselves? How can we read photographs by anonymous makers or make sense of the inexhaustible reserves of vernacular photography? Topics touch on events and figures from the 175-year sweep of photography’s history.

History of the Experiment
Art History 252
The scientific method and the modern form of the scientific experiment are arguably the most powerful inventions of the modern period. Although dating back, in its modern form, to the 16th century, the concept of the experiment as an attempt to find underlying continuities in experience goes back to earliest recorded history. The class looks at different epochs’ definitions of experiment, focusing on the classical, medieval, and Renaissance eras to the present. Texts by Aristotle, Lucretius, da Vinci, Leibniz, Newton, Darwin, Curie, Tesla, Einstein, McClintock, others.

Picasso in 20th-Century Art
Art History 254
Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) was a major influence on developments in 20th-century art. One class per week examines Picasso’s work and his interactions with contemporaries, and the second looks at concurrent developments in European and American modernism, moving through fauvism, expressionism, cubism, futurism, constructivism, Dadaism, surrealism, abstract expressionism, pop art, and minimalism.

Outsider Art
Art History 255
"Outsider art" is a problematic umbrella under which are grouped a variety of difficult-to-categorize artistic practices. The course examines the use of terminology such as outsider, naïve, and visionary, as well as groupings such as art brut, folk art, art of the insane, and popular culture.

Art in the Age of Revolution
Art History 257
A survey of European painting from the pre-revolutionary period (c. 1770) to realism (c. 1850). Topics include changing definitions of neoclassicism and romanticism; the impact of the French revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 1848; the Napoleonic presence abroad; the shift from history painting to scenes of everyday life; landscape painting as an autonomous art form; and attitudes toward race and sexuality. While the emphasis is on French art, time is also devoted to artists in Spain, Great Britain, and Germany.

Manet to Matisse
Art History 258
A social history of European painting from 1860 to 1900, beginning with the origins of modernism in the work of Manet. Topics include the rebuilding of Paris under Napoleon III, changing attitudes toward city and country in impressionist and symbolist art, and the prominent place of women in modern life representations.

New/Old Amsterdam
Art History 260
Amsterdam emerged as a global power in the early 17th century. With the help of the East and West India companies, the Dutch began exploring and colonizing locations throughout the world, including lower Manhattan. Although the Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam to the British in 1664, they maintained a vibrant presence in New York well into the 19th century. The course looks at how images and objects produced during this time shaped ideas about nationhood, citizenship, and early modern science.

20th-Century German Art
Art History 262
The emphasis is on German art from Jugendstil through expressionism, Dadaism, Neue Sachlichkeit, Nazi and concentration camp art, and post–World War II developments. Artists studied include Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, and Egon Schiele. The course concludes with a look at how more recent artists, such as Joseph Beuys, Bernd and Hilla Becher, Sigmar Polke, and Gerhard Richter, connect to previous German artistic tendencies.

Visual Intelligence
Art History 271
What does it mean to have visual intelligence? While we regularly interact with our smartphones and computers, we tend to overlook how much we rely on visual aptitude to interpret what we encounter there. Rarely do we think about how we navigate the visual world based on a shared vocabulary, gained over time, dependent in some cases on formal conventions with long histories. The course examines how images and visual technologies shape modes of seeing, as well as how neuroscientists study visual cognition.

Religious Imagery in Latin America
Art History 273
This course explores the varied visual manifestations of religious expression in Latin America after the Spanish conquest. In addition to churches, statuary, and paintings, the class examines folk art traditions, African diasporic religions, and contemporary art practices.

Modern in America: Art and Social Politic
Art History 278
The course considers early 20th-century artists and art movements in the United States, from Winslow Homer to Georgia O’Keeffe, the Ashcan School to abstract expressionism. How have artists understood their work as modern? What have artists and critics meant when they talked about realism and abstraction? In a period shaped by two world wars, Jim Crow laws, and women’s suffrage, how did artists respond to social injustice and warfare? The class explores these and other questions about art making in the context of social and political events.

Governing the World: An Architectural History
Art History 281
The course utilizes architecture as both an anchor and a lens to study the history of world organization. Slave ships, plantation houses, embassies, assembly halls, banks, detention camps, and corporate headquarters, as well as atlases, encyclopedias, and communication technologies, provide focal points in an effort to historicize the emergence of a “global space” and decipher its architectural constructions. Readings include works by Kant, Marx, Luxemburg, Arendt, Castoriadis, Said, Mazower, and Sassen, and architectural texts by Otlet, Le Corbusier, and Fuller.

History of Art Criticism
Art History 285
Beginning with the writings of Diderot and Baudelaire, the class examines the emergence of art criticism as a response to the public forum of the salon and, subsequently, its relationship to other sites of presentation. Also considered is the position of art criticism in relation to film and cultural criticism, models of the poet-critic and the artist-critic, and the historical moment when criticism became embroiled with theory.

El Greco to Goya: Spanish Art and Architecture
Art History 286
A survey of the complex visual culture of early modern Spain, with particular attention given to El Greco, Goya, Murillo, Velázquez, and Zurbarán. The class examines the formation of a distinct Spanish style within the context of European art and considers how Spanish artistic identity was a kind of hybrid, complicated both by Spain’s importation of foreign artists (Rubens, Titian) and by its relationship to the art and architecture of the colonies.

Experiments in Art and Technology
Art History 287
This course explores various connections between art and technology from the 1960s to the present day, along with the idea that both artists and theorists are involved in a common project of responding to new technologies. Writings, artworks, performances, and videos by figures including Marshall McLuhan, John McHale, Robert Rauschenberg, and Carolee Schneemann are considered.

Rights and the Image
Art History 289
An examination of the relationship between visual culture and human rights, using case studies that range in time from the early modern period (marking the body to register criminality, for example) to the present day (images from Abu Ghraib). Subjects addressed include evidence, disaster photography, advocacy images, censorship, and visibility and invisibility.

Contemporary Chinese Art
Art History 292
This course begins with the emergence of a modernist aesthetic in the 19th century (at the end of China’s last dynasty) and covers the formation of a nationalist modern movement, the political art that served the government under the Communist regime, and the impact of the opening of China to the West. The primary focus is on the various ways in which artists have responded to the challenges of contemporary life and culture.

East Meets West
Art History 293
A consideration, through art, of the impacts Eastern and Western cultures have had on one another. Broad topics for discussion include the arts of Buddhism and the Silk Road; medieval European borrowings from the East; travelers East and West; Arabs as transmitters of Asian technologies; concepts of heaven and hell; Western missionaries and the introduction of Western culture in India, China, and Japan; chinoiserie in European architecture, gardening, and design; and japonisme, the influence of the Asian aesthetic on modern art movements.

Arts of India
Art History 295
Beginning with the most ancient urban civilization, dating to the prehistoric period, the flowering and development of Indian philosophical and religious thought is traced through its expression in the arts, including the culture’s unique exploitation of the sensuous as a metaphor for divinity. Other topics studied are the evolution of an iconic tradition and the development of religious architectural forms, narrative painting, and sculpture.

Contested Spaces
Art History 307
During the 19th and 20th centuries, streets, kitchens, schools, and ghettos were spaces of political conflict and social transformation. This course focuses on these spaces of contestation and addresses how objects and buildings in dialogue construct new ideas about class, gender, and race. The first installment is taught in collaboration with the University of Michigan and Michigan State University; the course culminates in a conference that brings the classes together.

American Photographs
Art History 310
This seminar examines photography in America from a cultural studies perspective, that is, in the context of the history, art, and literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. Topics include the daguerreotype’s resonance with transcendental philosophy, the imagistic trauma of the Civil War, Progressive Era “muckraking” and Depression Era propaganda photography, the medium’s place in Alfred Stieglitz’s literary/artistic circle, Walker Evans’s seminal American Photographs exhibition, and postwar photographers who reimagined documentary photography as subjective expression.

Roma in Situ
Art History 312
This course consists of two weeks of walking, looking, and learning in Rome, followed by class meetings to discuss secondary scholarship and present student research. In Rome, the first week focuses on the ancient city, while the second week focuses on postantique (Early Christian, Renaissance, Baroque, and contemporary) art and architecture. Prerequisite: Art History 210, 235, or 236.

The Portrait and Its Guises
Art History 314 / Photography 314
What is the object of a portrait? What constitutes the nature of “likeness” or resemblance? Is it a matter of recording the physical characteristics of a person, or rendering the “inner person” in pictorial form? In addition to considering the ontology of the portrait, this course traces developments in portraiture in the 19th and 20th centuries, a critical period that encompasses the advent of photography, which ultimately challenged (and changed) the terms of the genre.

Interior Worlds: Turn-of-the-Century American Decorative Arts and Material Culture
Art History 315
Oscar Wilde wrote in The Picture of Dorian Gray, “It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances. The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invisible.” Through an engaged-learning experience with three early 20th-century National Park sites (Vanderbilt Mansion, the home of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Eleanor Roosevelt’s cottage at Val-Kill), this seminar explores how interior spaces—their furnishings and decorative objects—tell us stories, assert values, and project identities. Key movements, designers, and artists are also addressed.

Multimedia Gothic
Art History 316
Although scholarship on medieval art has often been separated by medium, Gothic church programs were actually multimedia spaces with meaning transcending the individual work of art. The class explores various forms of media, such as stained glass, painting, sculpture, textiles, and metalwork, as they contributed to the dynamic space of the Gothic church. Also addressed: parallels between the explosion of images in the Gothic era and the role of media today.

Ex Votos
Art History 324
An ex voto is a votive offering to a saint or deity, given as a token of gratitude for a miracle performed and, in some cases, as a vow. Almost anything can become a votive object when offered with intent. From archaic Greece to modernity, and from the Himalayan slopes to the forests of Brazil, votive offerings are the most universal practice in the history of mankind. This seminar is part of the planning for the exhibition Agents of Faith: Votive Giving across Cultures, opening at the Bard Graduate Center Gallery in September 2018.

Decorative Arts of Later Imperial China
Art History 333
This seminar examines the later history of Chinese ceramics, metalwork, jade, silk, furniture, jewelry, and lacquerwork. Students gain an understanding of the material environment of China’s cultural elite during the last four imperial dynasties. The discussion of representative artifacts touches on issues including collecting; ideas of self-cultivation, taste, and decorum; imperial and aristocratic consumption; the iconography and social function of pictorial ornament; art production within an increasingly commercialized society; international trade and the resulting cultural exchange; and connoisseurship.

Pop Art
Art History 337
This course considers pop art as a series of exchanges between fine arts and mass culture—and as a way of responding to the increasing dominance of global capital in the postwar period. The course progresses through a number of case studies, from the emergence of pop art in England in the late 1950s to pop movements in the United States, Germany, and South America in the 1960s. Artists covered include Evelyne Axell, Richard Hamilton, Cildo Meireles, Gerhard Richter, and Andy Warhol.

Seminar in Contemporary Art
Art History 340
After a survey of the minimalism of the 1960s, the course focuses on artistic developments in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. The class meets in New York City every fourth week to view current exhibitions.

Geographies of Sound
Art History 343 / Music 343
This course explores soundscapes as cultural, historical, and social constructs through which one can investigate the relationship between humans and the spaces they design and inhabit. Soundscape, a central, contested concept in sound studies, constitutes the primary field of interrogation. Students engage with peers at Smolny College in St. Petersburg, Russia, and Al-Quds in East Jerusalem, sharing projects (e.g., sound walks, mix tapes, sound collages) online.

Michelangelo: The Man, the Masterpieces, and the Myth
Art History 345
A study of the achievements of Michelangelo in sculpture, painting, architecture, and poetry in the context of biographies by Vasari and Condivi. Discussion also analyzes Michelangelo’s role in shaping his public image and creating the modern idea of the artist as isolated genius.

Asian American Artists Seminar
Art History 348
In recent years there has been increasing interest in artists of Asian ancestry who have worked in the United States. The relationship between the artistic traditions of their native lands and their subsequent immersion in American culture provides material for fascinating inquiries concerning biography, style, subject matter, and politics. Artists studied include Isamu Noguchi, Yun Gee, Yayoi Kusama, Yoko Ono, Nam June Paik, Ai Weiwei, Patty Chang, Nikki Lee, and Mariko Mori.

Women Artists of the Surrealist Movement
Art History 349
This course examines the use of female sexuality in surrealist imagery and considers the ­writing and work of Claude Cahun, Leonora Carrington, Leonor Fini, Dora Maar, Lee Miller, Meret Oppenheim, Dorothea Tanning, Toyen, Remedios Varo, and others. Issues explored include female subjectivity, cultural identity, occultism, mythology, dream imagery, artistic collaboration, and the methodologies employed to interpret surrealism in general.

Fin de Siècle
Art History 360
Students examine developments in the fine and decorative arts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in both Europe and the United States. Topics include the antirealist reaction of artists such as Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Aubrey Beardsley; the development of the Arts and Crafts movement; photography at the turn of the century; fashion of the period; the growth of feminism; and the relationship between the Arts and Crafts movement, the Vienna Werkstätte, Jugendstil, and Art Nouveau.

To Care, to Exhibit, to Present: Seminar on Curating
Art History 362
An introduction to key ideas and theories informing the field of curatorial studies, as well as a history of exhibitions since the 1960s. Classes are held at Bard’s Center for Curatorial Studies. Students consider the different components of exhibitions—design, didactics, artworks—and the differences between curatorial work, academic work, and criticism. They also collectively research and curate an exhibition.

American Art, 1900–1940
Art History 363
A survey of American art from the turn of the 20th century through World War II. Topics include Albert Pinkham Ryder and American symbolist art; American sculpture in the early years of the century; Georgia O’Keeffe and women photographers in the Stieglitz circle; New York City as a subject for modernist art; artists of the Harlem Renaissance; Asian American artists; and American art and the World Wars.

Seminar in the History of Art in Woodstock
Art History 364
Woodstock, New York, has been associated with artists ever since its founding as an art colony in 1902. The history of American art in the 20th century can be traced in microcosm there, beginning with the Arts and Crafts movement and continuing with pioneering modernists in the second decade of the century, social realists in the 1930s, and abstract expressionists in the 1950s. The course includes visits to historic sites and arts organizations.

Mexican Muralism
Art History 375
An examination of the muralism movement’s philosophical origins in the decades following the Mexican Revolution; the murals of Orozco, Rivera, and Siqueiros; and the work of lesser-known Mexican muralists. Also considered is the muralism movement’s wide-ranging impact on murals executed under the WPA in the United States throughout the 1930s, in Nicaragua during the 1970s, and in contemporary urban Chicano communities. Prerequisite: Art History 101, 102, or 160, or permission of the instructor.

Theories and Methods of Art History
Art History 385
Designed primarily for art history majors, this seminar helps students develop the ability to think critically about a range of different approaches to the field of art history. Students read and discuss a variety of texts in order to become familiar with the discipline’s development. Methodologies such as connoisseurship, cultural history, Marxism, feminism, and postmodernism are analyzed.