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Bard College Catalogue 2021-22
Cathy Collins (director), Kathryn M. Anderson, Elias Dueker, Brooke Jude, Craig Jude, Patricia Kaishian, Felicia Keesing, Gabriel G. Perron, Bruce Robertson, Michael Tibbetts
In order to meet the needs and interests of students within this diverse field, the biology curriculum at Bard is designed to be flexible. Students are encouraged to consult with their advisers to design a personal curriculum that covers requirements for advanced study and satisfies varied interests (biochemical, molecular, ecological) and approaches (laboratory-based, field-based, computational). Students are encouraged to gain additional expertise in chemistry, physics, mathematics, or computer science to prepare for the interdisciplinary nature of modern biological research. Bard’s laboratory facilities, field station, and relationship with the Rockefeller University allow students to undertake sophisticated Senior Projects in a wide variety of areas. Funds for summer research are available on a competitive basis.
In addition to the college-wide distribution requirements, First-Year Seminar, and Citizen Science, biology majors must complete a Senior Project of original scientific research; at least 6 credits of 100-level coursework (from among courses numbered above 140); Biology 201, Genetics and Evolution; Biology 202, Ecology and Evolution; Biology 244, Biostatistics; two courses outside of the Biology Program within the Division of Science, Mathematics, and Computing; at least two 300-level biology courses with labs; and 4 credits of 400-level biology seminar courses.
Recent Senior Projects in Biology
- “An analysis of the existing evidence for Lyme borreliosis in Australia, Mexico, and Africa”
- “The effect of fermentation, spices, and storage temperature on the spread of antibiotic resistance in root vegetables”
- “The impact of habitat fragmentation on the diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities”
- “Inducing learning and unlearning in Xenopus laevis through collision avoidance using valproic acid”
FacilitiesBiology equipment includes standard and real-time PCR machines, tissue culture facilities, growth chambers, fluorescence microscopes, a confocal microscope, and a wide variety of ecology field equipment. Biology students may also use the facilities of the Bard College Field Station, which is located on the Hudson River and affords access to freshwater tidal marshes, swamps, and shallows; perennial and intermittent streams; and young and old deciduous and coniferous forests, among other habitats.
CoursesElective courses in biology cover a variety of topics, including ecology, animal physiology, neurobiology, microbiology, conservation biology, cell biology, animal behavior, virology, metagenomics, and cancer biology. Upper College courses emphasize exposure to experimental techniques, examination of the primary literature, and written and oral presentation of scientific material.
DESIGNATED: THINKING ANIMALS INITIATIVE
Mammals are a specialized group of creatures with two notable features: they produce milk to feed their offspring and they maintain a constant internal body temperature, though doing so requires them to eat with near comical frequency. This course explores the ecology, behavior, physiology, diversity, and evolution of mammals, as well as what they can teach us about life on Earth in the 21st century, as the planet warms and little of the land or sea is untouched by humans, a particularly adaptable species of mammal.
Microbes in the Environment
Bacteria, viruses, and other microbial species are present and persist in all environments (aquatic, soil, skin, gut) and climates (temperate to extreme). Some microbes can be pathogenic and cause disease while others are essential for maintaining the health of an individual or ecosystem. Case studies include Ebola, influenza, Bacillus anthracis, and Vibrio cholerae. Prerequisite: passing score on Part 1 of the Mathematics Diagnostic.
Genetics and Identity
This course explores the biological bases of three aspects of the human condition, which are, to varying degrees, also social constructs: race, gender, and sexuality. A particular focus is on human evolution and our current understanding of how genetics and the environment interact to generate the variation we observe in these human characteristics.
Food Microbiology: Cider Making
An exploration of concepts in food microbiology, environmental sciences, and biochemistry associated with cider making at Montgomery Place Orchards. Students learn how to pick apples throughout the season based on their chemical properties; produce sweet cider in aseptic conditions; harness and characterize the microbial life associated with fermentation to favor the production of natural cider in a commercial capacity; and monitor the safe production of cider by conducting different assays that are commonly used in state-mandated analytical laboratories.
Botany for Herbivores
DESIGNATED: ELAS COURSE
Wild relatives of many important crop species, including potatoes, tomatoes, and broccoli, contain potent defenses against animals that might eat them. How did these plants become safe for us to eat? How do we deter other organisms from eating them? Designed for nonmajors, the course explores the ways in which humans have modified the plants we use as food, the challenges of ecosystems dominated by crop plants, and ways to evaluate evidence for the safety and efficacy of crop development and food production strategies.
Often Awesome: The Science and Humanity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
A look at the science behind Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, with a focus on the journey of one man from diagnosis through death, as told through his own words and those of his loved ones. Topics discussed include genetic testing and opportunistic infections. In the lab, students examine the causes and complications of ALS, including respiratory function, nerve conduction, and physiological response to stress.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one-third of U.S. adults, and 17 percent of children and adolescents, are obese. This course explores the potential factors contributing to the obesity epidemic, including behavior, evolution, genetics/physiology, and microbiome. Lab work investigates the influence of genetics on obesity as well as the efficacy of interventions. Prerequisite: passing score on Part I of the Mathematics Diagnostic.
Neuroscience as a field is undoubtedly useful to medical professionals, but would knowing some neuroscience change the way we behave as humans? If you learn more about those little cells in your brain that make you the conscious being that you are, will it make you more cynical and materialistic? Or will it fill you with a sense of something beautiful and complex arising from virtually nothing? This course looks at the neuroscience of music, visual art, pain, emotions, free will, consciousness, and other things that make us human.
From Egg to Organism
How does a single fertilized egg develop into a whole organism? How does one cell diversify into many different cell types, from blood to skin to muscle? How do these cell types develop into organs and organ systems? How do organisms derive cells that can reproduce and regenerate other cells? In this course, which includes a number of hands-on activities and labs, students focus on a basic understanding of how these events occur and speculate on discoveries yet to come.
Natural History of the Hudson Valley
The course trains students in the field, lab, and museum skills of natural historians. Lectures introduce concepts in systematics and taxonomy, the history of natural history, and how citizen science is exploiting crowdsourcing of data. The lab portion focuses on identifying plants, birds, amphibians, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and fish of the Hudson Valley. Students learn how to use binoculars, dissecting scopes, traps, nets, and other tools to visualize or capture specimens; and use field guides, phone apps, dichotomous keys, and other resources to identify them.
Biology of Extinctions Past, Present, and Yet to Come
The first half of the course focuses on the magnitude and causes of mass extinctions, their link to the evolution of new species, and the techniques and evidence used to investigate biological events that occur over vast temporal and spatial scales. The class next looks at current and future extinctions, identifying traits that make species vulnerable (or resilient) and exploring ways to predict the likelihood of a species extinction. Students learn how to design and conduct studies that test hypotheses using publicly available data and predictive models.
This introduction to current research in environmental microbiology covers such basic biological concepts as DNA, RNA, protein production, cellular replication, metabolism, respiration, and Mendelian genetics. Topics specific to microbial life include ecological life cycles and microbial habitats, the microbiomes of plants and humans, biodegradation and bioremediation, antibiotic resistance, biofilms, and quorum sensing. A laboratory component allows students to culture environmental microbes and learn techniques for identification and characterization of phenotypes.
From Genes to Traits
An introduction to the relationships between genetics, environment, and biochemistry. The laboratory portion of this course acquaints students with some of the methodologies and instrumentation found in a modern biology lab. Prerequisite: passing score on Part I of the Mathematics Diagnostic.
Global Change Biology
CROSS-LISTED: EUS, GPH
This introductory-level course explores the effects of climate change on the ecology of animals, plants, and microbes, and considers how these biologically oriented questions relate to the interconnected issues of human society, politics, and the economy. In the lab, students analyze ice-core data and use a bevy of tools to predict changes in the timing of migration in birds and butterflies, and how climate change will affect the distribution and range of plant and animal species.
DESIGNATED: ELAS COURSE
Designed for intended biology majors, the course looks at the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food. The first half introduces topics in food safety such as food spoilage, foodborne infections, and antibiotic resistance. In the second half, students learn how to harness the capabilities of the many microbes present in our environment to turn rotting vegetables or spoiling milk into delicious food. They also learn how to design, conduct, and analyze simple experiments while working with microbiology techniques, including DNA sequencing.
Case Studies in Medical Biology
To fully understand the major systems of the human body, in the context of both healthy and diseased states, one must examine aspects of the biological, chemical, and physical properties contributing to their function. This course utilizes MCAT-style questions and case studies as a platform to learn scientific theories and principles in basic biology, genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and other sub disciplines. In laboratories, students gain hands-on experience in testing these principles. They also practice evaluating evidence and interpreting and presenting data.
Developmental biology seeks to understand how complex organisms go from a single cell to highly developed and specialized entities. The course explores how organisms used in scientific research, often referred to as model organisms, develop from fertilization, including the early cellular divisions, to the formation of tissue layers and then to specialized organs. Select topics highlight fundamental concepts in this broad and rapidly evolving field.
Introduction to Neurobiology
Many neuroscience textbooks begin with descriptions of the brain’s nuts and bolts (neurons, synapses, ion channels) while fun topics, such as behavior, cognition, and memory, are lumped at the end. This is because the majority of what we know about the human brain we learned from rats, flies, sea slugs, and other model organisms. This course gradually climbs the ladder of complexity—from single neurons in invertebrates to large-scale networks in primates—to show how simple elements can combine and interact to produce meaningful behaviors.
Methods in Field Ecology
This 2-credit course provides students with essential skills for future course work or research in ecology. Skills are learned through a series of individual and collaborative field studies that test core hypotheses in the science of ecology, with a special focus on Hudson Valley ecosystems. Field techniques include time budgets, point counts and transects of wild birds, line-transects of amphibians and plants, sweep netting and pitfall trapping of insects, seine netting of fish, and acoustic sampling of insects and birds.
The Physical Context of Life
This course explores concepts in physics that have direct implications for how biological systems have evolved and how they function. Two major themes are the mechanics of motion in fluids and the ways that organisms produce and consume energy. The goal is to study how biological structure and function are better understood by learning the basic physics that constrains them. Prerequisites: high school biology and physics, and a passing score on Part I of the Mathematics Diagnostic.
Genetics and Evolution
CROSS-LISTED: GPH, MBB
The course takes a modern approach to the study of genetics in which classical ideas about genotype, phenotype, and inheritance are integrated into the modern molecular and genomic understanding of the processes involved in the generation of diversity. The laboratory consists of a semester-long project involving the genetic manipulation of a model organism’s genome to address one or more topics in the course. Prerequisite: one year of college biology.
Ecology and Evolution
DESIGNATED: ELAS COURSE
In addition to studying foundational ideas in both ecology and evolution, the class explores how genetic variation among individual organisms can influence ecological interactions and how these interactions can influence fitness. Students use model building to inform a mechanistic understanding of processes. Prerequisite: successful completion of Biology 201.
This 1-credit course provides students with broad exposure to biology through visiting speakers. Students hear about the wide-ranging research interests of invited biologists and have opportunities to interact informally with them. The course is graded pass/fail. Recommended for sophomore and junior biology majors.
CROSS-LISTED: EUS, GPH, MATHEMATICS
An introduction to the statistical methods biologists use to describe and compare data. Topics covered include elementary probability and statistics, characteristics of frequency distributions, hypothesis testing, contingency tests, correlation and regression analysis, different ways to compare means, nonparametric tests, and multivariate tests. Biology students should take this course before their senior year, if possible. Prerequisites: passing score on Part I of the Mathematics Diagnostic and one introductory biology course.
Students are introduced to protein structure, enzyme mechanisms and kinetics, coenzymes, thermodynamics, central metabolic pathways, biological membranes, DNA structure and replication, and ribosomal translation. An emphasis is placed on integrating knowledge of fundamental organic chemistry into a biological context. Laboratory work provides practical experience in the topics covered.
An exploration of the molecular aspects of gene expression in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Topics include DNA structure, replication, and repair; DNA transcription; RNA structure and processing; and polypeptide synthesis. Also covered are the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression. Lab work provides practical experience in techniques such as molecular cloning, restriction enzyme mapping, DNA sequencing, and nucleic acid hybridization. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and Chemistry 201-202.
This course investigates the principles of microbiology that make microbes unique, taking a systems-based approach to such topics as microbial cell structure and function, bacterial motility and chemotaxis, secretion systems, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and antibiotic resistance. The course focuses on bacterial species, but some time is devoted to the biology of eukaryotic microbes. The lab portion is a semester-long team project that involves examination of local microbial populations using culture, molecular, and biochemical approaches.
Students in the course examine the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in processes relating to eukaryotic cellular organization, communication, movement, reproduction, and death. These topics are considered through close reading of the primary and secondary literature. The laboratory portion consists of a semester-long project. Prerequisites: Biology 201 and 202 and Chemistry 201-202.
DESIGNATED: ELAS COURSE
A study of plant populations and communities through the lens of key species interactions, such as herbivory, completion, pollination, plant-fungal mutualisms, and plant-pathogen interactions. The class also explores the ways species diversity is generated and maintained at local and landscape spatial scales, and how plant community ecology theory can be applied to habitat restoration. Prerequisite: Upper College standing in biology.
DESIGNATED: ELAS COURSE, THINKING ANIMALS INITIATIVE
Birds are presented as a unique group and as representative of vertebrates, with emphasis on adaptation, ecology, behavior, bird conservation, the physical basis of flight, and laboratory and field methods used in modern ornithology. Students also consider current views of the systematic relationships among living birds and the evolutionary history of birds, including the debate regarding their relation to dinosaurs and the origin of flight. Field trips to local habitats and biological reserves, as well as study of museum specimens.
Have you ever asked yourself, why did that animal do that? There are many levels at which we could seek answers, running from proximal mechanisms (firing neurons and hormonal stimuli) through ultimate mechanisms (evolutionary selective pressures, which produce adaptive behaviors through natural selection). This course is primarily about the latter. Students seek answers as to why organisms evolve various mating strategies and how organisms use signals, among other questions. For moderated biology students or with permission of the instructor.
How do animals work? How do the veins, membranes, and tissues make it possible for animals to move, feel, and reproduce? Why are all those things there, and how are they different in different animals? Why do you have a spleen, and how can a crane breathe through a neck that long? Do fishes need to drink, and do they urinate? The course tackles these kinds of questions and compares human physiology to that of other animals. Prerequisite: Upper College standing in biology.
This course covers the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms, genetic pathways, and signaling events that regulate animal development. The class explores evolutionary mechanisms in a variety of model systems, including vertebrates (mouse, chick, frog, fish) and invertebrates (flies, worms); and examines cell determination and differentiation, the formation of the early body plan, organogenesis, morphogenesis, stem cells, and how principles of developmental biology apply to modern medicine. Prerequisite: successful moderation into biology or permission of the instructor.
Students learn to model, visualize, and analyze biological processes. Throughout the semester, they work on two long projects, gradually building up their complexity and improving their code. The course leads to a four-week individual project. Prerequisite: Biology 202 or Computer Science 210, or permission of the instructor.
How does the genetic diversity of microbes affect human health? How do anthropogenic actions such as pollution affect microbial populations around us? This research-intensive course uses genomics and metagenomics to study the ecology and evolution of antibiotic resistance in environmental microbes. For one week prior to the start of the semester, students meet daily with the instructor to design and conduct their own metagenomic survey of microbial populations found in the Saw Kill and surrounding lands.
Cholera: Pandemics, Pathology, and Molecular Mechanisms
This upper-level seminar examines a microbe that has caused seven worldwide pandemics and continues to plague human populations, Vibrio cholerae. Students examine the historical significance of cholera, environmental and socioeconomic factors that influence outbreaks, and the complex molecular genetics that allow this microbe to be so effectively pathogenic. Readings drawn from topically relevant primary, secondary, and historical literature. Prerequisite: Biology 201; Chemistry 201-202 is helpful, but not essential.
Advanced Seminar in Urban Ecology
Urban development, among the most pervasive forms of land cover change, poses significant challenges to many organisms, including humans. This seminar focuses on determining patterns of abundance and distribution of organisms in urban ecosystems, behavioral and evolutionary responses that facilitate adaptation to urban environments, and interactions between organisms and between humans and nature in urban environments. As a capstone project, students identify a gap in our understanding of basic or applied urban ecology, and design a research proposal targeting a funding agency to carry out the work.
The brain consists of multiple functional regions that each host multiple neural networks, which in turn are built of anything from dozens to millions of neural cells. To understand how brains work we need to know how individual neurons within these networks are connected and how their properties are tuned to make the network function as it should. In this seminar, students read and present primary papers that use imaging, electrophysiology, advanced statistical analysis, and modeling to study how neural networks are tuned and shaped in various biological systems.
Biotechnology and Infectious Disease
As world populations rise, so do pathogens capable of causing human disease. To manage this increase in infectious disease cases, current biotechnological advances can be used to design more effective methods for detecting, treating, and preventing infectious diseases. Readings address all angles of disease management, including the development of assays for low-level detection, application of nanosized agents for drug delivery, and design of novel vaccines for emerging infectious diseases. Prerequisite: Biology 201 or permission of the instructor.
Global Change and Health
Rapid environmental changes, including temperature, atmospheric gas, moisture, and land use changes, have had serious impacts on human, animal, and plant health. This upper-level seminar uses primary scientific literature to explore the impacts of these changes on the health of animals (including humans) and plants, including direct effects on physiology and the transmission of disease. Students lead discussions of recent primary literature, participate in group work, and write analyses and proposals.
Tissue and organ generation, CRISPR genome editing, the creation of synthetic genomes and the use of modified viruses to cure deadly disease are all biotechnological advances that a few decades ago would have read as science fiction. The course examines these 21st-century realities while also addressing ethical concerns. Prerequisites: junior or senior standing and Moderation in biology, or permission of the instructor.
Advanced Community Ecology: Diversity
Biodiversity is widely used in science media, but what is biodiversity, really, and is it beneficial to society? This course relies on student-led discussions of the primary literature to explore definitions and metrics of diversity, focusing on leading theories that guide our current understanding of the mechanisms that maintain diversity. Students also become familiar with computational tools for quantifying and comparing diversity across systems and spatial scales.
Alzheimer’s Disease: Past, Present,and Future
Alzheimer’s disease affects millions worldwide and costs billions of dollars to treat, making it an enormous public health issue. This course looks at the molecular underpinnings and genetic basis of Alzheimer’s, and the public health effects of the disease. Prerequisite: Moderation in biology or permission of the instructor.
Communicating Science amid Unresolved Ecological Controversies
DESIGNATED: CALDERWOOD SEMINAR
Supporting Earth’s ever-increasing population without reducing biodiversity remains one of our biggest challenges. The immediate need for solutions places pressure on land managers and policy makers to translate relevant scientific findings into action, perhaps before clear answers emerge. Students examine current controversies in the ecological literature, read recently published papers to gather evidence for both sides of an argument, and produce writing pitched at a variety of audiences. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing, moderation into biology, or permission of the instructor.
In It Together: Symbiosis on a Changing Planet
Symbioses abound in natural systems. Their evolutionary significance ranges from the evolution of the eukaryotic cell to mycorrhizal symbioses—a key innovation in the evolution of land plants—and endosymbionts implicated in diversification of arthropods. Symbioses span a continuum from antagonistic (e.g., pathogens) to cooperative (e.g., mutualists) relationships. The nature of symbiotic relationships may shift along the continuum depending on environmental context. Topics span common symbioses such as corals and lichens, and lesser-known symbioses such as endophytic fungi in plants and gut bacteria insects.
Students in this 1-credit course meet with a scientist each week to discuss the scientist’s research. In preparation for these meetings, they read primary papers and hear the scientist present a research talk at the weekly Biology Seminar. Over the course of the semester, each student is responsible for writing an article about the work of one of the scientists, with that article written for a general audience. Limited to eight students who have moderated into Biology or have permission of the instructor.