Bard College Catalogue

The Bard College Catalogue contains detailed descriptions of the College's undergraduate programs and courses, curriculum, admission and financial aid procedures, student activities and services, history, campus facilities, affiliated institutions including graduate programs, and faculty and administration.

Bard College Catalogue 2016-17

Bard College Catalogue 2016-17

Historical Studies


Cecile E. Kuznitz (director), Richard Aldous, Myra Young Armstead, Leon Botstein, Omar Youssef Cheta, Christian Crouch, Robert J. Culp, Holger Droessler, Tabetha Ewing, Ellen Condliffe Lagemann, Sean McMeekin, Gregory B. Moynahan, Joel Perlmann, Miles Rodríguez, Alice Stroup, Drew Thompson, Wendy Urban-Mead (MAT)


The Historical Studies Program focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on political, social, economic, and cultural aspects of history. The program encourages ­students to examine history through the prism of other relevant disciplines (sociology, anthropology, economics, philosophy) and forms of expression (art, film, literature, drama, architecture). The program also introduces a variety of methodological perspectives used in historical research and philosophical assumptions about men, women, and society that underlie these perspectives.

Areas of Study

Study plans can be divided into the following categories: national, regional, or local history (for example, American, European, Asian, Russian); period-oriented history (ancient, medieval, early modern, modern); and topical specializations (environmental history, urban history, diplomatic history, ethnic history, African American history, history of gender and sexuality, history of ideas, history of science and ­technology). Individual study plans may be further subdivided into specific areas of concentration.


In the Lower College, students are expected to take three or four history courses covering different regions and time periods and using a variety of research methodologies. Students are required to take a global core course before graduation, and preferably before Modera–tion. For Moderation, students are required to submit the standard two short papers and a paper responding to an assigned reading. By the time of their graduation, students must have completed between six and eight ­history courses covering at least three world regions and one period prior to 1800. These should include one course focused on issues of historiography. As part of the preparation for their Senior Project, Upper College students should take two 300-level seminars; one of these should be a major conference taken in the junior year that culminates in a substantial research project.

Recent Senior Projects

  • “’Black Dandyism: A Survey of Its Historical Presence and Its Modern Day Reality”
  • “Blast England! World War I, the Great English Vortex, and the Avant-Garde in Great Britain”
  • “Choosing Nuclear Disarmament: Why States Give Up Nuclear Weapons”
  • “Rewriting the Course: al-Banna, Qutb, and the Muslim Brotherhood’s Fight for the Elevation of the Islamic Nation”


The course descriptions that follow are presented numerically, beginning with 100-level introductory classes and continuing through 300-level seminars, and represent a sampling of offerings from the past four years. Tutorials and Major Conferences are also offered regularly; recent examples include Anarchism, Critical Geography, and The Decision to Drop the Bomb.

Ancient History
History 100 / Classics 100
The course has two main purposes: to see how much is implied by the notion of historical causation and what it means to “think historically,” and to understand the way the foundations of Western culture were first shaped in the Near East and then developed quite distinctively in the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome. The class also looks at the chronological and causal sweep of ancient Mediterranean culture as a whole, from its beginnings to the death of St. Augustine.

The Making of Europe to 1815
History 101
The second millennium opened a new era of European ascendancy. For 300 years, Northern Europeans improved agriculture and lived longer, and cities flourished as centers of commerce and culture. Then came a little ice age and the Black Death, followed by famines and epidemics. Yet the period also saw the rise of literacy, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and the creation of a global empire. To understand the paradoxical making of Europe, students examine primary sources and modern ­analyses.

History 1001
The class analyzes and compares some of the most iconic and influential revolutions in world history, including the French Revolution of 1789, the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, and China’s Communist Revolution of 1921–49. Other revolutionary events examined include the German Peasant Revolt of 1525, China’s Cultural Revolution, protests by students and intellectuals that rocked Europe in 1968, and the “velvet revolutions” and near revolutions that transformed state socialism in 1989.

Introduction to Jewish Studies
History 101 / Jewish Studies 101
See Jewish Studies 101 for a course description.

Europe since 1815
History 102
The first half of the course covers the period from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, addressing such topics as the establishment of parliamentary democracy in Great Britain, the revolutions of 1848, and European imperialism. The second half focuses on the Great War, Russian Revolution, Great Depres­sion, rise of fascism, Holocaust, Cold War, and fall of communism in Eastern Europe.

Colonial Latin America since Conquest
History 110 / LAIS 110
See LAIS 110 for a full course description. 

Three Cities: A History of Lagos, Nairobi, and Johannesburg
History 112
cross-listed: africana studies, eus, his
This introductory course in African history traces the development of Lagos, Nairobi, and Johannesburg, beginning with people’s first encounters with the concept of the “city” (before 1850). Students explore the impact of colonization, apartheid, and globalization in the postindependence era, looking at each of the cities through the perspectives of the people who participated in their construction.

War and Peace
History 120
cross-listed: gis, human rights
A survey of the international system since the outbreak of war in 1914, with particular attention paid to the three great conflicts of the 20th century—World War I, World War II, and the Cold War—and the shifting balance of power in Europe and Asia. Special prominence is given to the policies and strategy of the Great Powers as well as the ideological forces that defined them.

20th-Century Britain
History 122
cross-listed: gis
This survey course begins with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 and then moves chronologically through the 20th century. Readings include seminal texts by George Orwell, Winston Churchill, Vera Brittain, Graham Greene, Isaiah Berlin, and Philip Larkin.

Early Modern French Empire
History 124
cross-listed: africana studies, french studies
To study greater France is an opportunity to consider how the language of nation and empire overlays complex networks of contact, exchange, and identity between metropolitans, indigenous peoples, and those without states. What sustained supranational connections between, for example, Quebec, Senegal, St. Domingue (Haiti), the French state in Paris, and French port ­cities such as Nantes and Marseilles? The course focuses on the Atlantic Ocean, its trade, and how societies that developed (or were destroyed) on its shores experienced pain and promise on a new human scale.

Crisis and Conflict: Introduction to Modern Japanese History
History 127
cross-listed: asian studies, gis, gss
Japan in the mid-19th century was beleaguered by British and American imperialism and rocked by domestic turmoil. How, then, did it become an emerging world power by the early 20th century? Why did Japan’s transformations during the late 19th and early 20th centuries lead to the total war of the 1930s and 1940s, and what factors explain its postwar economic growth and renewed global importance? 

Origins of the American Citizen
History 130
cross-listed: american studies, human rights
The United States is often portrayed as emerging triumphantly in 1776 to offer inclusive citizenship and a transcendent, tolerant, “American” identity to all its indigenous and immigrant residents. Yet the reality of American history belies this myth. This course focuses on six moments that definitively challenged and shaped conceptions of “American identity”: the early colonial period, the Constitutional Con­vention, the Cherokee Removal, the era of internal slave trade and the “Market Revolution,” the Mexican-American War, and Reconstruction.

The Ottomans and the Last Islamic Empire
History 134
cross-listed: gis, mes
After World War I, the Ottoman Empire disappeared from the world scene. In its place arose numerous states, which today make up the Middle East and parts of Eastern Europe. In these states, memory of the empire is alive and well; it is in relation to the Ottoman legacy that national identities were constructed and claims to national borders settled (or not). Topics: the empire’s origins, its Islamic and European identities, everyday life under the Ottomans, and the emergence of modern Turkey. 

Global Europe
History 137
cross-listed: french studies, german studies, human rights, ics, italian studies, spanish studies
Through a policy of aggressive expansion, the nation-states of Europe controlled over 85 percent of the world’s habitable land by 1900. How did expansion and the postcolonial reaction to it transform European culture and sensibility? How did a region defined by a millennium of continuous conflict find not only relative peace but, in the European Union, a new political form and model for global human rights? This seminar features contributions by a range of Bard faculty.

The Mediterranean World
History 138
cross-listed: italian studies, lais
A historical journey to the Mediterranean world of the 16th and 17th centuries using the scholarship of Fernand Braudel as a vehicle. The class considers geography, demography, climate, and econo­mies; next, the formation of social structures; and last, politics, religion, and culture.

City Cultures
History 139
cross-listed: american studies, eus This course looks at a variety of physical structures and spaces from the industrial and postindustrial eras in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris, and Vilna. The class considers what the sites reveal about urban life across time, including such issues as technological innovation, new forms of leisure, changing relationships to the environment, and the development of working class culture.

Introduction to Russian Civilization
History 140
cross-listed: medieval studies, res
An examination of the origins and evolution of Russian civilization from the founding of the first Eastern Slavic state through the 18th century, when Russia began to modernize by borrowing from Western culture. Among the topics considered are the ethnogeny of early Russians, the development of state and legal institutions, the relationship between kinship and politics, the role of religion in public and private spheres, economic organization, social institutions, popular culture, and the impact of the outside world upon Russian society.

20th-Century Germany and the Unification of Europe
History 141
cross-listed: german studies, gis, human rights
This course explores Germany’s pivotal place in the ideological divisions, political catastrophes, and theoretical, social, and scientific innovations of modern Europe. A guiding theme is the paradox that even as Germany is perhaps the most “modern” of European states, it has been haunted since its inception by its past. Topics include the impact of World War I, the political experiment of Weimar democracy, the Holocaust, the student protests of 1968, and the creation of a new German and European identity after 1989.

European Diplomatic History, 1648–1914
History 143
A survey of the major developments in European diplomatic history between the Treaty of Westphalia and the outbreak of World War I. Key themes: the changing nature of diplomacy and international order; the rise of the nation-state and standing armies; war finance and the bond market; and the French Revolutionary upheaval, the Industrial Revolution, and ideological responses to them (e.g., liberalism, nationalism, conservatism, socialism, and anarchism).

The History of Experiment
History 144
cross-listed: experimental humanities, sts
The scientific method and the modern form of the scientific experiment are arguably the most powerful inventions of the modern period. Although dating back, in its modern form, to the 16th century, the concept of the experiment as an attempt to find underlying continuities in experience goes back to earliest recorded history. The class looks at different epochs’ definitions of experiment, focusing on the classical, medieval, and Renaissance eras to the present. Texts by Aristotle, Lucretius, da Vinci, Leibniz, Newton, Darwin, Curie, Tesla, Einstein, McClintock, others.

Diaspora and Homeland
History 153
cross-listed: africana studies, gis, human rights, jewish studies
The concept of diaspora has gained widespread popularity as a way of thinking about group identity and its relationship to place. Students read recent theoretical works on diaspora and then examine case studies of diasporic populations from ancient times to the present, including the Jewish people, black African-descended people since the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and Chinese and South Asian migrant populations.

Apartheid in South(ern) Africa
History 158
cross-listed: africana studies, human rights
Apartheid was a political beast that ravaged not only the Republic of South Africa but also much of southern Africa from the late 18th century until 1994, when South Africa’s first black president, Nelson Mandela, was elected. Recently, economic struggles and the perceived failings of the African National Congress have shed new light on apartheid’s legacies of inequality and South Africa’s longstanding regional dominance. This course explores apartheid’s philosophical, economic, and social origins within political institutions and daily life.

The History of Technology and Economics in the Modern Period
History 161
cross-listed: eus, gis, sts
The course considers how a separate domain of technology first came to be defined during the 18th century and addresses how institutional forces, such as law, academia, business, and government, came to define and influence technological change and scientific research during the industrial revolution. Case studies range from the bicycle to the birth control pill.

Jews in the Modern World
History 181
cross-listed: Jewish studies, religion
In the modern period Jews faced unprecedented opportunities to integrate into the societies around them, as well as anti-Semitism on a previously unimaginable scale. In response to these changing conditions they reinvented Jewish culture and identity in radically new ways. This course surveys the history of the Jewish people from the expulsion from Spain to the establishment of the state of Israel. It examines such topics as acculturation and assimilation, Zionism, the Holocaust, and the growth of the American Jewish community.

Peasant Commune, Renaissance, and Reformation in the German and Italian Worlds, 1291–1806: Inventing Modernity
History 184
cross-listed: german studies, italian studies
Using Jacob Burckhardt’s The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy as its starting point, this course examines the role of the drastic upheavals of the early modern period in defining the origins of such institutions as capitalism, political individuality, religious freedom, democracy, and the modern military. Also addressed is the historiography and politics ­surrounding the “invention” of the Renaissance in the late 19th century and Burckhardt’s relation to von Ranke, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche.

The Making of the Modern Middle East
History 185
cross-listed: gis, human rights, mes
This historical survey covers the major transformations that the Middle East region has witnessed since the late 18th century, including the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, European imperialism, nationalism (including the Arab-Israeli conflict), political Islam and, most recently, the Arab Spring. The course also examines social and cultural aspects such as gender, labor, popular culture, and forms of protest. The geographic focus is largely the eastern Mediterranean (including Egypt and Turkey), Iran, and to a lesser extent, the Gulf.

The Cold War
History 190
cross-listed: gis, human rights, res
Like two scorpions, the Soviet Union and the United States warily circled each other in a deadly dance that lasted more than half a century. In a nuclear age, any misstep threatened to be fatal—not only to the antagonists, but possibly to the entire human community. What caused this ­hostile confrontation to emerge from the World War II alliance? This course reconsiders the Cold War by simultaneously weighing both the American and Soviet perspectives on events as they unfolded.

Topics in Modern European History, 1789 – Present 
History 192
cross-listed: gis
This course employs methodologies and historiographies ranging from gender and demographic history to diplomatic and military history. It offers both an in-depth presentation of key aspects of modernity and a survey of ­contemporary historiography. Among the key issues discussed are the relation of the Industrial Revolution to the creation of new institutions of invention and patent, the role of institutional structure in diplomacy, and the effect of new mass media on citizenship.

James Bond’s World
History 2007
The character of James Bond has played a defining role in creating our understanding of what it means to be a spy and an Englishman. This course looks at the reality behind the fiction of one of Britain’s most glamorous and enduring exports, as well as the author who created him and the context of the postwar world. Background reading: Ian Fleming’s The Blofeld Trilogy and Simon Winder’s The Man Who Saved Britain.

Alexander the Great
History 201
cross-listed: classical studies
Alexander the Great changed the world more completely than any other human being, but did he change it for the better? How should Alexander himself be understood—as a tyrant of Hitlerian proportions, as a philosopher-king seeking to save the Greek world from self-destruction, or as a deluded madman? Such questions remain very much unresolved among modern historians. This course undertakes a thorough reading in the ancient sources concerning Alexander and examines as much primary evidence as can be gathered.

History of New York City
History 2014
cross-listed: american studies, eus
A history of New York City from its founding as a Dutch colony to the present postindustrial, post-9/11 era. Emphasis is on the 19th and 20th centuries, when the city was transformed by immigration and rose to prominence as a global economic and cultural capital.

When Race Morphed: Understanding the Peoples of the United States, 1900 to the Civil Rights Era
History 2015
cross-listed: american studies, human rights, sociology
This course traces ethnic and racial divisions among Americans during the 20th century. The nonwhite groups we speak of today—blacks, Asians, and Native Americans—are part of this history; so too are the many European immigrant groups who arrived in the tens of millions by the 1920s, the Mexicans, Chinese, and others. Students consider the social history of these peoples across the years; the ways in which they were understood, by intellectuals and in government classifications like the census; and how “whiteness” was changing.

Wars of Religion
History 2035
cross-listed: gss, human rights
Religion and revolution have formed an unholy alliance at several distinct moments in history. This course is a journey across the motley religious landscape of early modern Europe, in which the ideas and practices of heretics, infidels, and unbelievers nestled in the spaces where orthodox Catholicism held sway. From the expulsion of Iberian Jews and Muslims to European contact with “cannibalism,” and from Luther in Germany to Carmelite nuns in Canada, students trace the stories of real people through Inquisition records, diaries and conversion tales, early pamphlets, and accounts of uprisings.

The First Power Couple: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt in Depression, War, and Peace
History 2039
cross-listed: american studies, gss, human rights
An examination of the public policies, leadership strategies, and sometimes contentious political partnership between Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. The course concludes with a look at Eleanor Roosevelt’s role as a member of the first U.S. delegation to the United Nations, chair of the first Human Rights Commission, and the driving force behind the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Students conduct primary source research at the FDR Presidential Library.

Hawkers and Madmen: Advertising the American Dream
History 2105
To what degree does advertising reflect the ­culture in which it is set, and to what degree and in what ways does it shape that culture? Advertising once served a functional role: people with goods to sell described them in newspapers, leaflets, and signs. In the 20th century advertising became big business, and advertising agencies exploited the growing sophistication of mass media. This course explores the means advertisers have used to sell an idealized American consumer democracy.

Britain and the Great War
History 2109
Almost a hundred years after the outbreak of World War I, today’s view of the conflict is defined by the war poets’ evocation of a pointless waste of life—an “Anthem for Doomed Youth” (Wilfred Owen). This course tests that notion by exploring the impact of the war on Great Britain and Ireland through documents and seminal texts ranging from battlefield ­dispatches to Benjamin Britten’s War Requiem. Background reading: David Reynolds’s The Long Shadow.

Early Middle Ages
History 2110
cross-listed: classical studies, medieval studies
The European “middle ages,” originally so called as a term of derision, are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly thought. This course surveys eight centuries, with a focus on the formation and spread of Christianity and Islam in the Mediterranean, European, and Nordic worlds. Topics include religions and polities; the roles of Jews and Judaism; monuments and their meanings; and the transformations of the Mediterranean, Near East, northern Atlantic, and Europe, 200–1,000 c.e.

High Middle Ages
History 2110
cross-listed: french studies, medieval studies
The course focuses on Europe and the Middle East (with glances to Asia and North Africa), from the first millennium through the 14th-century Black Death, and asks: How did towns change and a middle class emerge in Western Europe? How did capitalist cultures develop, linking East and West? How did universities complement or challenge the status quo in Europe? How did political patronage sustain ancient philosophy in the Muslim world? And how did medieval climate, technology, and epidemic transform Asia, the Middle East, and Europe?

The Invention of Politics
History 2112
cross-listed: human rights
Individuals and groups spoke, wrote, and fought to make their claims to public power in the period between 1500 and 1800 in ways that forced a reimagining of political relationships. The greatest institutions in place, particularly monarchies and the papacy, used their arsenals of words, documents, symbols, and ritual to maintain their legitimacy in the face of subtle or uproarious resistance. The tensions between groups created new political vocabularies to which we, in our present, have claimed historical ownership or explicitly rejected.

The World Makers: The Intellectual Foundations of U.S. Foreign Policy since 1890
History 2113
“Sometimes I’ve been charged with being an elitist,” diplomat George F. Kennan observed in 1945. “Of course I am. . . . God forbid that we should be without an elite. Is everything to be done by gray mediocrity?” This course examines the foreign policy intellectual elite that Kennan both admired and personified, including Alfred Mahan, Woodrow Wilson, Charles Beard, Walter Lippmann, Paul Nitze, Henry Kissinger, Jeane Kirkpatrick, Francis Fukuyama, Paul Wolfowitz, and Samantha Power, who each have shaped the discourse and practice of U.S. foreign affairs.

Soviet Russia
History 2118
cross-listed: gis, political studies, res
This course examines the Russian Revolution and Civil War; the new economic policy and succession struggle after Lenin; the major phases of Stalinism; the “Great Patriotic War” (WWII) and the onset of the Cold War; “soft repression” and the growth of the Soviet bureaucratic elite of cadres under Leonid Brezhnev; Alexei Kosygin’s reforms and efforts to improve Soviet economic performance; Soviet foreign policy; the economic crisis of the 1980s; and, ultimately, the collapse of the Soviet Union.

From Analog to Digital: Photography and Visual History in Africa
History 2123
cross-listed: africana studies, experimental humanities, human rights
Key themes include photography’s role in shaping historical knowledge and the representation of Africa and its peoples, the appropriation of image making into African creative practices and daily life, the politics of exhibition and archiving, and the ethics of seeing war and social justice. Students design a historical photography exhibition and have the opportunity to interact with leading curators, photojournalists, and art photographers who have spent time in Africa.

Genealogy of Modern Revolutions in the Middle East
History 2127
cross-listed: gis, human rights, mes
The revolutions (some would say “uprisings”) that unfolded in several Arab countries after December 2010 took the world by surprise. Until then, commentators in the West and the Middle East alike described the political culture of the Arab world as “apathetic” and “prone to authoritarianism.” This class explores the long history of modern revolutions (and uprisings) in the Middle East, including examples of nonviolent revolutions, militant revolts, labor strikes, and coups d’état.

Comparative Atlantic Slave Societies
History 2134
cross-listed: africana studies, american studies, french studies, human rights, lais
Forced labor, whether indentured or enslaved, underpinned the early modern Atlantic world. Beginning in the early 16th century, millions of enslaved Africans and indigenous Americans came to or moved around the Americas. This course focuses on the African and indigenous Atlantics, and considers three important issues: the comparative development of slavery, methods of resistance, and processes of emancipation and national formations at the end of the 18th century. Readings help students trace the development of “African American,” “Afro-Brazilian,” “Afro-Mexican,” and “Afro-Caribbean” cultures.

Reason and Revolution: European Intellectual History to 1870
History 2136
cross-listed: french studies, german studies, sts, victorian studies
The course outlines some of the principle transformations in the modern understanding of society and nature within a political, cultural, and institutional framework. Particular attention is placed on the interrelation of science, theology, and philosophy that characterized the period (from Descartes and Leibniz to Mach and Nietzsche). Topics of interest include skepticism, the interrelation of enlightenment and romanticism, feminism, conservatism, utopian socialism, nationalism, and anarchism.

Harlem, Bronzeville, South Central
History 2142
cross-listed: africana studies, american studies, eus
While pockets of African American residential concentration have existed in American cities since the colonial period, the black ghetto—relatively large, dense, and racially monolithic—has been a feature of the U.S. urban landscape only for the past century. This course addresses the cultural, social, economic, and political factors that created, and sustain, these areas. Case studies focus on Harlem, Chicago’s Bronzeville, and Los Angeles’s South Central sections, and investigate the differences among these neighborhoods in the American imagination

From Shtetl to Socialism: East European Jewry in the Modern Era
History 215
cross-listed: gis, jewish studies
Eastern Europe was the largest and most vibrant center of Jewish life for almost 500 years prior to the Holocaust. In that period East European Jewry underwent a wrenching process of modernization, creating radically new forms of community, culture, and political organization that still shape Jewish life today in the United States and Israel. Topics: the rise of Hasidism and Haskalah (Enlightenment), modern Jewish political movements, pogroms and Russian government policy toward the Jews, and the development of modern Jewish literature in Yiddish and Hebrew.

The Progressive Era in U.S. History
History 217
cross-listed: american studies
This course surveys the period between 1890 and 1930 for the social and cultural politics of reform that it spawned. Topics include cross-Atlantic exchanges that informed an American progressive consciousness, competing historical interpretations of progressivism, and the legacy of progressivism for later 20th-century liberalism. In addition to the recognized reform movements of the period, the class considers other contemporary developments—for example, the rise of educative exhibits and exhibitionism, racial accommodationism—as reflections of progressive thought.

Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World
History 2191 / Classics 2191
cross-listed: classical studies, gss
The course explores the gendered relations of men and women in the ancient Greco-Roman world, focusing on literary and historical sources, in order to understand the social history of ancient sexuality and its complex manifestations. Topics include women’s lives in classical Athens; Greek homoerotic relationships; sexuality as part of Greek drama, religion, and mythology; women in Roman myth, literature, and history; and differences in Greek and Roman sexual/social bonds.

History and Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology
History 221 / Philosophy 221
See Philosophy 221 for a full course description.

A History of the Modern Police
History 222
cross-listed: american studies, french studies, gis, human rights
The course investigates the invention and evolution of the police from the late 17th century to the present, focusing largely on France, Britain, and the United States. The class considers the development of the police as an expression of sovereign right and of citizens’ rights, from enforcer of the king’s will to public servant.

Radio Africa: Broadcasting History
History 2237
cross-listed: africana studies, experimental humanities, human rights
The radio was critical to Africa’s colonization and decolonization. While colonial authorities used radio to broadcast news and transmit governing strategies, local African communities sometimes appropriated the radio for political and entertainment purposes. This course uses developments in radio technology to explore histories of political activism, leisure, cultural production, and entertainment across sub-Saharan Africa from colonial to present times. In conjunction with the Human Rights Project’s radio initiative, students design a podcast on a topic of relevance to the course.

Africa and the Indian Ocean
History 2238
cross-listed: africana studies, asian studies, gis, human rights
The Indian Ocean, which runs along East Africa’s Swahili coast, has long facilitated the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Africa and Asia. It also represents a historiographical tradition through which to think about Africa’s past in ways not permitted by the Black Atlantic tradition. Students use architectural plans and traveler accounts to reconstruct the historical origins of slave and trading towns, and rethink the geographical and theoretical axes along which we engage with African histories of colonialism, nationalism, and decolonization.

Russia, Turkey, and the First World War
History 224
cross-listed: res
This course explores Tsarist Russia’s collapse during and after World War I, as well as the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the wake of that conflict. The primary focus is on five major periods: political upheaval in the late Tsarist and Ottoman regimes (1903–09), the Italian and Balkan wars (1911–13), the Great War (1914–18), the Russian upheaval of 1917–18, and the Russian Civil War, which largely coincided with Turkey’s war of independence (1919–23).

Contemporary Russia
History 2241
cross-listed: res
After examining the dilemmas of reform in the 1980s and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the course traces the different paths of Russia and other successor states through the present day. Key themes: the command economy and efforts to liberalize it; the nature of the Soviet collapse and whether it was inevitable; the hyperinflation of the early 1990s and its consequences; the rise of the Mafia; the war(s) in Chechnya; the transition from Yeltsin to Putin; and the current scene.

War against the World
History 2253
cross-listed: eus
Ecological history is a skeptical version of the triumphalist history of technology. For each achievement, there has been a price to pay. Studies have traced the toll of agriculture on human health in a world where living things compete for water; examined how electricity and the combustion engine have contaminated air, water, and earth; and correlated dams with reduced salmon spawning and pesticides with extinctions and mutations. Readings include Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power and case studies from around the world.

Law in the Middle East: From Ottoman Edicts to Contemporary Human Rights 
History 2255
cross-listed: gis, human rights, mes
Students in the course examine how law was constituted and applied among the Muslim and non-Muslim communities of the Ottoman Empire (16th through 18th centuries); how this particular early modern legacy shaped the policies of the Ottoman and post-Ottoman states toward legal reform in the modern period (19th and 20th centuries); and the politics of law in the contemporary Middle East. Readings revolve around the intersection of law with various social spheres, such as religious conversion, gender, slavery, and human rights.

Black Modernism
History 2271
cross-listed: human rights
This course grounds students in the foundational literature of 20th-century anticolonial and postcolonial thought. By focusing on the francophone world, students follow developments in Paris, Marseilles, Haiti, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Senegal, enabling them to assess heterogeneous responses to a single imperial framework. Readings include the poetry of Aimé Césaire, essays by Léopold Senghor and Suzanne Césaire, the psychosocial theory of Frantz Fanon, a novel by Maryse Condé, and history by C. L. R. James.

Confucianism: Humanity, Rites, and Rights
History 229
cross-listed: asian studies, gss, human rights, philosophy, religion
The class looks at the transformations of Confucian philosophy, social ethics, and political thought, focusing on five key moments of change. Close readings in seminal texts provide a foun­dation in the earliest Confucian ideas of benevolence, rites, and righteousness. Among other topics, the course considers how Confucian thought shaped Western ideas of rights and how Confucian concepts of humanity, relational ethics, and social responsibility offer alternatives to Euro-American rights discourse.

Gender and Sexuality in Modern China
History 2306
cross-listed: anthropology, asian studies, gss, human rights
This course explores the roles of gender and sexuality in the construction of social and political power in China over the last 500 years, including traditional areas of focus such as foot binding, the cloistering of women, and the masculinization of public space; the transformations of Confucian age/sex hierarchies within the family; women’s rights movements of the early 20th century; and the Communist revolution’s ambivalent legacy for women in the People’s Republic of China.

The American Dream
History 2307 / Sociology 2307
cross-listed: american studies
“But there has been also the American dream, that dream of a land in which life should be ­better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement.” These words from James Truslow Adams summarize the optimism and sense of exceptionalism that have defined much of Ameri­can experience. This course considers the various articulations of the Dream and the ideological and structural supports for it, and how these have changed over time. 

London Calling: Britain in the 1980s
History 2311
When the late Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was asked what she had changed about British life, she answered: “Everything.” This course looks at a transformational period in British politics, culture, and society, examining seminal contemporary texts by writers such as Martin Amis, Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Alan Clark, and Margaret Thatcher herself.

Global Victorians
History 2319
cross-listed: victorian studies
They went everywhere and did everything. Long before “globalization,” the Victorians imagined the world universally. In their voyages of discovery they set out to achieve mastery of others and themselves, as well as attempting to map and understand the natural world around them. The course focuses on this project of empire, both from within and without, using texts on exploration and discovery. Authors studied may include Charlotte Bronté, Joseph Conrad, Sir Richard F. Burton, Rudyard Kipling, Anna Leonowens, and Winston Churchill.

American Urban History
History 232
cross-listed: american studies, eus
A study of U.S. urbanization as a social and cultural process best understood by relevant case studies. Topics include, but are not limited to, urban spatial practices and conceptualizations, the establishment of the nation’s urban network, the changing function of cities, the European roots of American city layout and governance, urban social structure, the emergence of urban culture, and ideations/representations of American cities.

Native American History
History 2356
cross-listed: american studies, human rights
An overview of the history created by and between native peoples, Africans, and Europeans, from the 15th through the 20th century. Attention is paid to the exchanges and contests between Native Americans and African Americans in the colonial and early national period, as well as today. Primary sources and historical interpretations of interactions provide a context for evaluating questions of current Native American politics and financial and land reparations.

Power and Performance in the Colonial Atlantic
History 236 / Theater 236
See Theater 236 for a full course description.

Greek Religion: Magic, Mysteries, and Cult
History 2361 / Classics 2361
See Classics 2361 for a full course description.

Reason and Passions
History 2391
cross-listed: french studies
What is the good life? In hard times, is it better to serve or to flee society? What power does reason have over the passions? Descartes and Pascal, Molière and Racine, and Fontenelle and Foigny debated these fundamental questions during 17th-century hard times. Optimists and pessimists alike developed their views in ­philosophical treatises, plays, fables, utopias, and other genres designed to reach a large Francophone audience. This course explores their writings and influences.

20th-Century Diplomatic History
History 240
cross-listed: political studies
This course examines in depth the tumultuous history of the “short 20th century.” While one cannot understand the period without grappling with social movements and ideas, the emphasis here is primarily on high politics, war, and diplomacy from the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, with a brief epilogue on the post–Cold War era.

Past, Present, and Future in Medieval England
History 2401
cross-listed: medieval studies
How did people in the Middle Ages think about their past, present, and future? This course looks at how a group of English writers tried to make sense of the remarkable times in which they lived. Combining history, prophesy, poetry, and political commentary, their works address such dramatic events as the murder of Thomas Becket, rebellion of Eleanor of Aquitaine, and crusade of Richard the Lionheart, as well as a range of other topics, from the character of the Irish to the nature of werewolves.

Czarist Russia
History 241
cross-listed: res
This survey explores Russian history from Peter the Great to the 1917 revolution within a broad context of modernization and its impact on the country. Among the topics covered are the reforms of Peter the Great and their effects; the growth of Russian absolutism; the position of peasants and workers; the Russian revolutionary movement and Russian Marxism; and the overthrow of the Russian autocracy. Readings include contemporary studies on Russian history and works by 19th-century Russian writers.

20th-Century Russia: Communism/Nationalism
History 242
cross-listed: gis, human rights, res
This course analyzes the main internal and external political developments in the region and examines aspects of the rapidly modernizing Russian society such as the Soviet command economy; the construction of national identity, ethnic relations, and nationalism; the arts; the family; gender relations; and sexuality. Course materials include scholarly texts, original documents, works of fiction, and films.

Mao’s China and Beyond
History 2481
cross-listed: asian studies, gis
No individual shaped modern China more than Mao Zedong. This course uses Mao’s life and writings as a framework for exploring modern Chinese history, beginning with an analysis of how the 20th-century revolutions relate to other social, cultural, and economic trends, including urbanization, industrialization, consumerism, and the expansion of mass media. For the Maoist period (1949–76) the class addresses topics such as youth culture, socialist citizenship, and political violence. The focus then turns to contemporary China, and how it has developed in reaction to Maoism.

Joyce’s Ulysses, Modernity, and Nationalism
History 2551
cross-listed: ics, sts, victorian studies
Although it concerns only one day in 1904, each chapter of James Joyce’s Ulysses is written in a radically different style. This course complements Joyce’s stylistic innovation by using ­multifarious contemporary documents and ­historical texts to unfold the historical context and resonance of each of Joyce’s chapters. Among the key issues addressed are the function of historical and mythical time in everyday life and the effect of politics and mass media on personal experience. 

Capitalism and Slavery
History 2631 / Human Rights 2631
 Scholars have argued that there is an intimate relationship between the contemporary wealth of the developed world and the money generated through 400 years of slavery in the Americas. Is there something essential that links capitalism, even liberal democratic capitalism, to slavery? This course examines the development of this linkage, focusing on North America and the Caribbean from the early 17th century through the staggered emancipations of the 19th century. Contemporary issues (e.g., reparations, the “duty” of the Americas to Africa) are also considered.

Encounters in the American Borderlands
History 269
cross-listed: africana studies, american studies, eus, human rights
Frontiers and borders have threaded across the Americas like a spiderweb from the late 15th century until the present. What did it mean to have an encounter in these borderlands—between Native Americans and Europeans or Africans? Are borderlands exclusively a physical space or are they imagined as well? This course provides an overview to borderlands in North America from the Columbian Exchange (1492) to the late 20th century, and considers the possibilities and perils for those living in the zone between empires and nations.

The Holocaust, 1933–1945
History 2701
cross-listed: german studies, human rights, Jewish studies, sts
This course examines modern anti-Semitic movements and the aftermath of World War I; Nazi rule and the experience of German Jews from 1933 to 1938; the institution of ghettos and the cultural and political activities of their Jewish populations; the turn to mass murder and its implementation in the extermination camps; and the liberation and its immediate aftermath. Special attention is paid to the question of what constitutes resistance or collaboration in a situation of total war and genocide.

Liberty, National Rights, Human Rights
History 2702
cross-listed: gis
Both the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the successor conventions that ultimately formed the International Bill of Human Rights were created in reaction to the problems of genocide and mass population transfers during World War II. Topics include the creation of national rights from the treaty of Westphalia through the British, American, and French Revolutions, the relation of these rights to colonial administrations, and the postwar institutions of human rights, among others.

From the Holocaust Museum to the History Channel: Public History in the United States
History 2703
cross-listed: american studies
History is an academic subject, yet most people encounter it outside the academy. They watch TV documentaries and historical films, visit museums, and travel to historic places. All of these are examples of public history. This course looks at the role that historians and other academics play in shaping the institutions and practice of public history and the relationship(s) among public history, American culture, and popular memory. It also addresses practical aspects of career opportunities in the field, such as curatorship, documentary film, archival work, and historic preservation.

The Other Europe: East Central Europe after World War II
History 279
cross-listed: gis, human rights, res
After a brief history of East Central Europe before and during World War II, the course concentrates on the region’s evolution since the war. Turning points examined include the Berlin uprising of 1953, the Hungarian revolution and reforms in Poland in 1956, the “Prague Spring” of 1968, the Solidarity movement in Poland, and the revolutions at the end of the 1980.

American Environmental History I
History 280A
cross-listed: american studies, eus
Since the Old World first encountered the New, a battle has raged over what this New World might become. For some, it meant moral and spiritual rejuvenation. For most, it meant an opportunity to transform material circumstances. At no time have those two visions been compatible. This course examines attempts to fashion a scientific or aesthetic rationale for the use and abuse of natural resources, to subdue or preserve the wild­erness, and to understand the relationship between humans and nature.

American Environmental History II: The Age of Ecology 
History 280B
cross-listed: american studies, eus
This course investigates Americans’ interaction with their environment from roughly 1890 to the present. It considers how the role of the federal government has changed from the “conservation” to “environmental” eras, why the Dust Bowl occurred, how chemical warfare changed the life span of bugs, whether wilderness should be central to the environmental movement, and other topics that address how we live in the world.

History 282
cross-listed: africana studies, american studies
An exploration of the connection between the American Civil War and the subsequent Reconstruction project in the former Confederate states. Also examined:?the competing understandings of the war’s goals by contemporaries; the experiences of various participants (Northerners, emancipated slaves, Southern whites) in Reconstruction; political and extrapolitical opposition to Reconstruction; and the institutional and constitutional legacy of the project.

Entrepreneurs, Intellectuals, and the History of the Global South
History 3060
cross-listed: asian studies, gis, mes
This seminar explores the circulation of goods and ideas in the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean worlds from c. 1750 until c. 1950. Rather than studying the history of the colonized non-West in relation to Europe, this course brings to the forefront the connections between different parts of the colonized world, most notably the Middle East and South Asia. It does so through studying economic and intellectual developments.

Captivity and Law 
History 310
cross-listed: africana studies, human rights
The class focuses on the confrontation of early modern African and European political thought and practices of captivity—abduction, wartime hostage-taking, slavery, and other forms of internment. Captivity engages questions of war and ransom as much as labor, religion, and race. It involves contracts, written or not, for renting, selling, buying, and freeing people. As such, captivity figures prominently in laws of war and peace. The language of the law indicates varying degrees of legitimacy and becomes a touchstone for the changing morality of societies.

Research Seminar in U.S. Urban History 
History 3102
cross-listed: american studies, eus
In this course, students pursue specialized study and research in American urban history. Those interested in urban space and its meanings, urban planning and design, new urbanism, suburbanism, the postmodern city, urban politics, urban infrastructure, and urban culture are invited to bring their individual topics to the table. The class initially considers a common set of readings having to do with urban historiography before shifting focus to individual student research projects and the literature and methods informing them.

Political Ritual in the Modern World
History 3103 / Anthropology 3103
cross-listed: anthropology, asian studies, gis, human rights
Bastille Day, the U.S. presidential inauguration, and rallies at Nuremberg and Tiananmen Square: political ritual has been central to nation-building, colonialism, and political movements over the last three centuries. This course uses a global, comparative perspective to analyze the modern history of political ritual. Among the topics covered are state ritual and the performance of power, the relationship between ritual and citizenship in the modern nation-state, and the ritualization of politics in social and political movements.

History 3112
The cry “Plague!” has struck fear among people around the world, from antiquity to the present. What is plague? How has it changed history? Starting with Camus’s metaphorical evocation of plague in a modern North African city, this Upper College seminar examines the historical impact of plague on society. Readings include literary works by Camus, Boccaccio, Manzoni, and Defoe; historical and philosophical analyses by ancients Thucydides and Lucretius; and contemporary literature on history, biology, and public health.

The Lives of Other Slaves
History 312
cross-listed: human rights, mes
In the United States, the antebellum “Cotton Kingdom” shapes understandings of slavery and its legacy. But slavery was not limited to the trans-Atlantic trade. Millions of Africans were enslaved and forced to convert to Islam in an eastern-oriented trade. Taking the experiences of slaves in the Ottoman Empire (c. 1300–1922) as a starting point, this seminar explores the identities, trajectories, and afterlives of slaves in the Middle East (broadly defined to include North Africa, the Balkans, and the Caucasus) during the early modern and modern periods.

The Case for Liberties
History 3121
cross-listed: french studies, human rights
What is tyranny? When is rebellion justified? Given human nature, what is the ideal government? Is there a human right to free trade? Is commerce compatible with art and philosophy? Such questions prompted Netherlanders in the 16th and 17th centuries to carve a Dutch Republic out of the Spanish Empire, and to create a “Golden Age” of capitalism, science, and art. Monographs on Dutch history are supplemented with paintings, scientific treatises, and the literature of rebellion and republicanism (including Spinoza’s Theologico-Political Treatise).

History of U.S. Urban Schooling
History 3132
cross-listed: american studies, eus, human rights
This course reviews the history of urban schooling within the context of major social developments, including industrialization, immigration, unionization, suburbanization, and the woman’s suffrage and civil rights movements. The first section traces the development of urban schools from the early national period through the first half of the 20th century; the second focuses on more contemporary problems of school reform.

The Arab-Israel Conflict
History 3134
cross-listed: human rights, Jewish studies, mes 
This course provides students with an understanding of this conflict from its inception to the present. Among the themes discussed are how the Jewish national movement that began in the late 19th century and the Arab national movement that arose to contest Ottoman and European rule of Arab peoples led to the emergence of the State of Israel and the Palestinian refugees in 1948. The course examines how the political character of the conflict has changed over the decades.

Biography and U.S. History
History 3135
cross-listed: american studies, eus, human rights
Students survey the ways in which life stories can convey multiple and often opposing understandings of the past. Biographies can reinforce “Great Man” understandings of history, recover the role of ordinary people, confirm the idea of individual agency, highlight the power of context in framing individual decision making, precisely locate and define extraordinary actions and actors, render history in human terms, and suggest rightly or wrongly a coherence to the past. This course serves as a Major Conference.

Urban Disasters and Catastrophes in U.S. History
History 3137
cross-listed: american studies, eus
Natural disasters and traumas to the physical infrastructure and built environment—great fires, epidemics, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, blackouts, riots—are conventionally viewed as abnormalities in the flow of a functioning city. At the same time, such calamities can reveal shockingly institutionalized patterns of unevenness and gaps/oversights in urban management. Through several case studies, the class investigates these issues by considering fictional, first-person, and other primary literature on American cities as well as pertinent monographs. For moderated students only. 

The Power of Print
History 3139
cross-listed: asian studies, experimental humanities, sts
An exploration of print media over the last half millennium and its impact on society, culture, and politics. Through a mix of theoretical and historical texts, students consider how print has fostered the development of new political communities, created and undermined cultural authority, and enabled new dynamics of knowledge production. Analysis of the rise of digital media provides critical perspective for understanding how the materiality of the printed text and its circulation through space has affected its social, cultural, and political significance.

Violent Cultures and Material Pleasures in the Atlantic World
History 314
cross-listed: africana studies, american studies, experimental humanities, lais
Emeralds, chocolate, sugar, tobacco—precious, exotic, sweet, addictive. Like human actors, commodities have stories of their own. They shape human existence, create new sets of interactions, and offer a unique lens through which to view history. This course explores the hidden life of material objects that circulated from the early modern Atlantic into the rest of the world. Readings introduce historical methods and strategies to reclaim history from objects found in different parts of the Americas.

Central European Cities: Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest
History 3141
cross-listed: eus, german studies, gis
In this course, the metropolis is used to investigate the Central European experience of modernity. Basic themes include the cultural reaction to mechanization and bureaucratization of modern urban life; the metropolis as a new arena to contest traditional political and social roles; and the role of the city in the development of new sociological and philosophical theories and in new forms of communication, association, and political action.

Reading the Postcolonial in African History and African Political Thought
History 3148
cross-listed: africana studies, gis, human rights, political studies
Scholars have interpreted “postcolonial” as a temporal disjuncture, after colonialism. This course shifts away from that understanding to a more theoretical site of engagement over the discourses of colonialism, nationalism, race, and globalization. Topics discussed include historiography, the relationship of power to knowledge production, and critiques of colonialism, nationalism, and apartheid.

The Historical Politics of Africa’s Civil War
History 3149
cross-listed: africana studies, human rights, political studies
This seminar challenges students to move beyond the rhetoric of political conflict in Africa and instead understand current struggles as crises of historiography. Ongoing conflicts in the Central African Republic and South Sudan are considered within a historical context of civil war in postindependent Africa. Through primary and secondary sources, students explore possible causes for civil unrest in Nigeria, Angola, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone, as well as the actors and interests involved, and proposed resolutions.

The Culture of Yiddish
History 315 / Jewish Studies 315
See Jewish Studies 315 for a course description.

“We Make Our Own History”: A Practicum on Eleanor Roosevelt
History 3151
“One thing I believe profoundly,” Eleanor Roosevelt wrote in Tomorrow Is Now, “we write our own history.” Students use the archives of the FDR Presidential Library; the resources of Eleanor Roosevelt’s home, Val-Kill; and secondary sources to develop an online exhibit using the theory and practices of public history. Each student chooses a topic to fully develop, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and the UN, civil rights, role of the First Lady, New Deal arts programs, resettlement communities, or her “My Day” column.

Writing and Thinking about History: The Great War in World History
History 3224
This graduate-level course looks at the changes and trends in the research and writing of history as practiced by professional historians. After brief consideration of the origins of history as a formal academic discipline in the 19th century, and of the transition from political to social history in the mid-20th, the class considers the multiplicity of approaches that came out of the “theory explosion” between the 1960s and 1990s. The course draws from the fields of modern European, African, and world history.

Global Latin American Conjunctures  
History 3225 / Sociology 3225
See LAIS 3225 for a full course description.

Before Bard and Beyond: A Public History Practicum on the Hudson Valley
History 3229
cross-listed: american studies, art history
For millennia the Hudson Valley has sustained communities that exploited the resources of the region to support themselves. In the late 1700s, the valley began to be prized for its beauty as well as its utility. Elites began to build large country houses surrounded by “pleasure grounds” that overlooked the river. The main Bard campus comprises three of these estates as well as Native American sites and early farms. Students produce a collaborative public history exhibit, utilizing Dublin Core Metadata standards and Omeka online-exhibit-building software.

Your Papers, Please? Technocracy, Technology, and Social Control in Nazi Germany, the DDR, and the BRD
History 3234
cross-listed: german studies
This course addresses the coercive and violent powers of the modern state as they were refined through technologies and techniques in National Socialist Germany, and then alternately condemned and utilized in the (East) German Democratic Republic (DDR) and (West) German Federal Republic (BRD). Topics range from the development of new techniques of propaganda and military oversight to the manipulation of social technologies such as identification papers, the census, racial pseudoscience, and, most horrifically, the concentration camp system.

Enlightenment in France
History 32378
cross-listed: french studies
The Enlightenment in 18th-century France represented a great burst of intellectual confidence in man’s capacity to change the human condition. This course surveys characteristic literary forms (from the novel to the encyclopedia) and such key Enlightenment themes as gender, race, and human nature; the natural world and the city/civilization; the colonies; politics and economy; and epistemology and the progress of human reason. Readings from Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau, and from contemporary best-sellers by La Mettrie, Buffon, Graffigny, and Quesnay.

Four Case Studies of Revolutionary Violence
History 325
The question of violence—of repressive governments, revolutions, and counterrevolutions—is traced across case studies from South Africa, France, Russia, and China. The course seeks to understand each revolution in terms of both indigenously generated dynamics and world-historical factors. This is a graduate-level course offered jointly by the MAT Program and the College.

Culture and History of Food
History 329
cross-listed: eu
This course takes a historical and cultural look at the relationships between who we are and what we eat. What can we understand about a culture by looking at its food? How do people construct relations to their bodies, other people, their histories, animals, and their environment through food? Students consider such themes as food’s role in organizing gender relations, religious practice, debates over taste and pleasure, cultural and national identity, and environmental impact and sustainability.

Cuba and the Spanish Caribbean in Global Perspective: Sugar, Slavery, and Revolution
History 339
cross-listed: africana studies, american studies, gis, human rights
This seminar explores global connections and hybridities involving sugar, slavery, and revolution in the Spanish Caribbean, from the 19th century to the mid-20th century. The continued influence of these colonial legacies today is also addressed.

1917 Revolution in Russia
History 347
cross-listed: human rights, res
Topics include the economic and social developments that preceded the Russian Revolution, intellectual and cultural background of the revolutionary movement, ideology and practice of the major political parties that participated in revolutionary events, the role of women in the movement, political dynamics of the revolution, reasons for the Bolshevik victory, and the effects of the revolution on Russian society. Readings include original works and scholarly studies.

Russian Intellectual History
History 365
cross-listed: res
This seminar focuses on the major trends and personalities in 19th-century Russian secular thought. Topics include continuity and change in Russian culture, debates between Western­izers and Slavophiles, revolutionary populism, and socialism. Readings include works by Chaadayev, Chernyshevsky, Dostoevsky, Gogol, Lenin, and Tolstoy, and contemporary studies of the Russian intellectual tradition.